HabitatBiotics™ LR35 — An Herb & Spice Based Cleanser for the New Millennium.

— This article, by Jerry Cates, was created on 9 January 2019, and revised last on 22 January 2022. © Bugsinthenews Vol. 18:01(01).


Introducing the Herb & Spice based cleanser HabitatBiotics™ LR35, formulated and bottled in our laboratory. Here are all the details on this product, including descriptions of the herbs and spices included in its recipe, explaining how it can and should be used.

The labels applied to the front and back of each 32 oz. container of this product, along with its Safety Data Sheet (SDS), are displayed below:


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What is HabitatBiotics™ LR35? How did it get its start? And why was it developed?

What it is — HabitatBiotics™ LR35 is a multi-purpose, multi-surface cleanser, whose active ingredients are faithfully derived from plant-based constituents. It represents, in its present form, the results of more than 40 years of research and development. Please note that this product is not intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease, and is not intended to affect the structure or any function of the body of man or other animals, as defined by FD&C Act, sec. 201(g)(1).

How it got its start — The product that today is branded as HabitatBiotics™ LR35 owes its origins to a simple hypothesis that was advanced by my mother while I was a mere child. She believed that plant phytochemicals, in their natural, unmodified states, could provide a superior means of achieving good hygiene in homes, businesses, and diverse environments, just the way a good soap does. I later used that hypothesis as the impetus behind an equally simple mission: to produce, directly from natural herbs and spices, the most effective plant-based, biodegradable cleanser imaginable, one that leaves nothing but cleanliness and goodness behind.

Why it came into being — Keeping physically clean, not just bodily but environmentally as well, is not a trivial pursuit. As mom would put it, it’s the key to a long and healthy life, not only for individuals, but for communities alike. But real cleansing should do more than just wash away ordinary grime, the way a good bar of soap, or a sudsy solution does. Real cleansing, the kind plants do for themselves, goes that extra step, and keeps on cleaning by cloaking its user and critical parts of the user’s environment with a durable but invisible mantle of cleansing goodness, without creating another mess in the process. So, when — as a young man working as an analyst for a research firm in upstate New York — I was desperate for a cleanser that could be counted on to do just that, I turned to nature for help.

Nature does not reveal answers to vexing questions quickly. It took decades of research and development to confirm mom’s original hypothesis in practical terms: Plant phytochemicals do, indeed, hold the key to real cleansing. Nature’s plants vest their cleansing powers in a huge list of wildly different phytochemicals, all acting in harmony like a well-organized army of cleanup technicians. That swarm of dedicated, microscopic janitors combines their individual talents, synergistically, to protect their plants and the immediate environs in ways none of them could do all by themselves.

Each individual phytochemical donates its unique talents to the group, creating a collective functionality that transforms ordinary cleansing power into a genuine superpower. Plants use that superpower every minute of every day to become, and stay, the best that they can be.

Better yet, they do all that without creating more messes in the process. But here’s the best part: that very same army of phytochemicals, applied in the right combinations and concentrations, can be extracted from one kind of plant, then combined with the phytochemicals extracted from other kinds of plants, and made to work just as well for us as they do for all the plants that make them.

The Rest of the Story…

Starting from scratch, I’d sought to prove mom’s original hypothesis, mentioned above. It wasn’t easy, and took a lot of time, but the end result bore fruit. Beginning in the 1960’s, when little was published on plant extractives, I ferreted out and devoured all the writings on botanical constituents I could find. Those studies have continued uninterrupted, even during the two+ years I spent in Vietnam, and on up to the present day. Along the way I gathered supplies of essential oils and powdered herbs, made decoctions and tinctures, and slowly became informed enough to formally embark on the quest that finally led to this.

I call it HabitatBiotics because the conjunction of “habitat” and “biotics” succinctly expresses the essence of nature. The L is for one of the two most prominent essential oils it contains, East Indian lemon grass. The R is for the other one, distilled from a special kind of rosemary needles. And the 35 refers to how much of each — 0.35% — is exploited in the process of blending together the finished product.

Its present recipe includes extracts from four essential oils and eleven herbs and spices. These ingredients are themselves comprised of hundreds of different phytochemicals, many more than the 97 major ones I’ve listed later in this article. For most of these herbs and spices I’ve adapted the abbreviated lists provided in Tisserand et al.’s authoritative reference “Essential Oil Safety,” 2nd Edition,  which purports to include the major phytoconstituents of each. For those not covered in that reference I adapt the lists from other specific sources, and identify the source in the body of the reference itself.

In my lab each herb and spice is subjected to a lengthy extraction process, then married together in a base of purified water combined with naturally distilled alcohol and white vinegar. Later I added a tiny amount of technical grade thymol, a phenol derived from p-Cymene, found in oil of thyme, to enhance the formula’s sole functionality, as a superior, biodegradable cleanser.

What It’s Good For…

The uses I recommend for HabitatBiotics™ LR35 are simple and direct:

HabitatBiotics™ LR35 works practically everywhere, as a multi-purpose, multi-surface herb & spice based cleanser. It is intended to be used for a broad range of cleansing purposes,thereby maintaining a clean environment.

I could write page after page about the ways it can be used, but that would be a waste. You need to experience its goodness yourself, to discover how your unique cleansing needs make it work best for you.

Its body is derived from a select combination of natural, botanical sources, faithfully extracted and combined, in a mixture unsullied by preservatives and other, potentially harmful additives. All I’ve done is make those botanical constituents available for you to use as you see fit. Each is a complex composition of the phytochemicals used by plants to get clean and stay clean.

That, in a nutshell, is what HabitatBiotics™ LR35 is here to do… cleanse us — you and me and the rest of us — from the effects that accompany the state of being “dirty.” Let that concept soak in. Consider it a kind of IQ test, if you want to. Then imagine the possibilities. No, it isn’t magical, any more than any of nature’s plants are magical, but its results are special. Use it. You’ll  see what I mean.

How I Selected the Herbs and Spices Included in HabitatBiotics™ LR35…

For a candidate herb or spice to qualify for inclusion in HabitatBiotics™ LR35, specific criteria had to be met:

  1. A demonstrable cleansing functionality. Cleansers eliminate, neutralize and/or remove contaminants. Anything that performs in one or more of those roles automatically qualifies for consideration
  2. A superlative toxicity profile. The herb or spice must pose no danger to the user or to any of the desirable objects or organisms within the cleansing environment.
  3. A propensity for biodegradation. The herb or spice must readily biodegrade without creating objectionable residuals in the process.
  4. A favorable interaction profile. When the herb or spice is combined with all the other ingredients in the formulation, a net positive synergy must be achieved.

Every herb and spice included in HabitatBiotics™ LR35, meets all four. Those herbs and spices are  listed separately below, in the order of their occurrence in the product’s Safety Data Sheet (SDS).

Replicated Phytoconstituents…

Many plant constituents are replicated within the different herbs, spices, and their essential oils that are represented in the mix. Consequently, their ultimate concentration within the HabitatBiotics™ LR35 formula can only be estimated by summing the fractions from each herb and spice, as described in the listing that follows.

About Cats…

Our feline friends do not possess the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes needed to efficiently neutralize phenols, so concentrated essential oils with the wrong ingredients can be toxic to them. Practically every veterinarian with a web site rightfully points this out. The HabitatBiotics™ LR35 recipe was formulated and tested with this concern in mind, to make it as cat-friendly as possible. I believe it’s as safe for cats as a cleanser can be, but for users with cats, that belief should not be accepted merely on faith. Our label cautions against direct application to a cat’s skin or fur, and recommends that cats be removed from areas where HabitatBiotics™ LR35 is used until the spray has dried. Are we going overboard in those recommendations? Maybe. But we’d rather be too cautious than not enough. That said, I feel moved to add parenthetically that some cat-lovers have used small amounts of  HabitatBiotics™ LR35 on their cats to assist with special, temporary cleansing needs, always with excellent results. But they’ve done so for only as long as needed to get the job done.

And Now, About the Phytochemicals you are about to review…

The long list that follows is only a part of the micro-cleansers contained within each of the plant extractives making up HabitatBiotics™ LR35. Each has a plethora of faculties, capabilities they employ to keep the plants that make them clean. I have not attempted to list those faculties here. If I did, this article would become so enormous it wouldn’t be readable. Look them up and you will see what I mean. When you do, you will also find that some also have a number of easily misunderstood demerits associated with them.

In high concentrations, most phytochemicals can actually be harmful. We just mentioned how they can be harmful to cats when applied injudiciously and at high concentrations. It happens that in the wrong concentration they also can harm humans. Yet, in the low concentrations represented here, especially when combined with a plurality of differing kinds of phytochemicals, they become extraordinary — and essentially harmless — cleansers. That’s why I show, for each one, its range of concentration in HabitatBiotics™ LR35. Many are represented in such small amounts that they might be more appropriately described in parts per million or parts per billion. I’ve refrained from adding those measuring schemes to the narratives in the interest of keeping them as uncluttered as possible.


Essential Oils:

  • Lemon Grass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) leaf essential oil, (Tisserand et al. p. 334-5) is derived — for use in HabitatBiotics™ LR35 — from East Indian lemon grass, which is an angiosperm in the order Poales (grasses, bromeliads and sedges), the family Poaceae (the grasses), and the tribe Andropogoneae (the sorghum tribe). The genus Cymbopogon contains a broad spectrum of grasses, many of which are cultivated for their culinary and herbal qualities. Cymbopogon flexuosus and its close relatives have long, narrow leaves with sharp edges. At maturity these grasses reach over six feet in height. Because those extracts contain several of the same phytoconstituents present in citrus, the flavors and fragrances of each are almost indistinguishable. The exact percentage of this specific essential oil that remains in the finished HabitatBiotics™ LR35 formula is not disclosed, but an amount equal to 0.35% of the raw mix volume was exploited in its production, a portion of which is removed during the curing process. The major phytoconstitiuents known to be present in this herb are listed below in the order of their typical concentrations:
    • (E)-Geranial, ranging here from 45.1-54.5% (Tisserand et al. p.564), is an aliphatic monoterpenoid alkene aldehyde with the CAS number 141-27-5. It is an isomer of neral and a component of citral. Besides its presence in lemon grass, it is also a major constituent of lemon myrtle (46.1-60.7%). In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.158% to a maximum of 0.191%.
    • Neral, ranging here from 30.1-36.1% (Tisserand et al. p.607), is an aliphatic monoterpenoid alkene aldehyde with the CAS number 106-26-3 It is an isomer of geranial and a component of citral. Besides its presence in lemon grass, it too is an important constituent of lemon myrtle (32.0-40.9%). In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.105% to a maximum of 0.126%.
    • β-Citronellal, ranging here from 5.2-46.8% (Tisserand et al., pp.537-8), is an aliphatic monoterpenoid alkene aldehyde with two CAS numbers: 2385-77-5 [(3R)-(+)-β-Citronellal] and 5949-05-3 [(3S)-(-)-β-Citronellal], is a major constituent of combava leaf (a citrus native to the Indonesian island of Sumbawa, similar to lime with a smaller fruit that exhibits a more acidic aroma), having concentrations ranging from 58.9-81.5%. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.0182% to a maximum of 0.164%.
    • β-Caryophyllene oxide, ranging here from 0-1.6% (Tisserand et al., pp. 521-2), isa bicyclic sesquiterpenoid alkene epoxide with the CAS number 1139-30-6, a moderate constituent of catnip (14.3-19.4%).  In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.0% to a maximum of 0.0056%.
    • (E)-Geraniol, ranging here from 0-6.7% (Tisserand, et al., pp. 565-7), is an aliphatic monoterpenoid alkene alcohol with the CAS number 106-24-1. It is an isomer of linalool and nerol and  a major constituent of Bergamot (86.8-93.2%). In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.0% to a maximum of 0.0235%.
    • (E)-Geranyl acetate, ranging here from 0.1-4.0% (Tisserand et al., p.568), is an aliphatic monoterpenoid alkane ester with the CAS number 105-87-3, and is also referred to as trans-Geranyl acetate and acetic acid trans-Geranyl ester. It is an important constituent of Thyme, where it is represented in concentrations of 36.5%. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.00035% to a maximum of 0.014%.
    • (+)-Limonene, ranging here from 0.1-3.8% (Tisserand, et al., p.580-2), is a monocyclic monoterpenoid alkene with the CAS number 5989-27-5, and is also referred to as d-Limonene, Cinene, as well as several additional synonyms. It is a major constituent of 21 separate species of citrus, as well as such disparate botanical structures as celery seed (68.0-75.0%), European dill seed (35.9-68.4%), and Fir needles (54.7%). In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.00035% to a maximum of 0.0133%.
    • Methyl heptenone (6-Methylhept-5-en-2-one), ranging here from 0.3-1.4% (Tisserand et al. pp.599-600), is an aliphatic alkene ketone with the CAS number 409-02-9, and is also known as methyl isohexenyl ketone and sulcatone. It is a minor constituent of fenugreek (4.5%). In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.00105% to a maximum of 0.0049%.
    • Linalool, ranging here from 0.4-1.3% (Tisserand et al., pp.584-8), is an aliphatic monoterpenoid alkene alcohol with the CAS numbers 126-90-9 [(S)-(+)-Linalool, also known as coriandrol] and 126-91-0 [(R)-(-)-Linalool, also known as licareol], is a major constituent of Ho Wood (95%) and 19 other botanicalsIn HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.0014% to a maximum of 0.00455%.
  • Rosemary (Salvia rosmarinus) Essential Oil, (Tisserand et al., p.407-9) is derived from an angiosperm shrub in the order Lamiales, the family Lamiaceae (the mints, deadnettles, and sages), and the genus Salvia. Native to the Mediterranean region, it is now cultivated and wild-crafted throughout all those parts of the world where climate and soil conditions allow it to thrive. All parts of the plant contain volatile phytochemicals, though they are particularly concentrated in the aerial parts, especially within its leaves. Until 2017 this botanical resided in the genus Rosmarinus. As a genus that name is now obsolete, but lives on here as this species epithet and as the descriptor of a monophyletic clade of species within the genus Salvia. At least seven rosemary chemotypes (plants with nearly identical outward appearances but with differing biochemical constitutions) are recognized, each with a distinct phytoconstituent profile. The exact percentage of this specific essential oil that remains in the finished HabitatBiotics™ LR35 formula is not disclosed, but an amount equal to 0.35% of the raw mix volume was exploited in its production, a portion of which is removed during the curing process. The major phytoconstituents found with Camphor chemotype rosemary are listed below in the order of their typical concentrations:
    • Camphor, ranging here from 17.0-27.3% (Tisserand et al., pp.512-16) is a monoterpenoid phenol with the CAS number 464-49-3, and is also known as 2-Bornanone and 2-Camphanone. It is found in at least 61 individual herbs and their chemotypes. It is a major constituent of Ho Leaf (42.0-84.1%), as well as lavender, wormwood and sage. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.0595% to a maximum of 0.0956%.
    • 1,8-Cineole, ranging here from 17.0-22.5% (Tisserand et al., p.408), is a bicyclic monoterpenoid ether also known as Eucalyptol, Cajeputol and 1,8-Epoxy-p-menthane, with the CAS number 470-67-7; it is a major constituent of seven species of botanicals in the genus Eucalyptus and of eleven additional botanicals; it typically is absent in East Indian lemon grass, but is present in West Indian lemon grass in concentrations ranging from 0-2.9% (Tisserand, et al., pp.523-4). It is found in over 200 essential oils, usually in concentrations below 10%. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.0595% to a maximum of 0.0788%.
    • α-Pinene, ranging here from 4.4-22.0% (Tisserand et al., p.618-20), is a bicyclic monoterpenoid alkene that occurs in several isomers including (1R)-(+)-α-Pinene, also known as Australene, which is the isomer usually found in North American pine oils and has the CAS number 7785-70-8; (1S)-(-)-α-Pinene is the dominant isomer in European pine oils and has the CAS number 7785-76-4. Over 400 botanicals are known to contain α-Pinene. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.0154% to a maximum of 0.077%.
    • γ-Terpinene, ranging here from 0.5-10.8% (Tisserand et al., p.408), is a monocyclic monoterpeoid alkene with the CAS number 99-85-4. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.00175% to a maximum of 0.0378%. 
    • Camphene, ranging here from 2.8-10.0% (Tisserand et al., p.512), is a bicyclic monoterpenoid alkane that occurs in several isomers, including (+)-Camphene with the CAS number 5794-03-6, and (-)-Camphene with the CAS number 5794-04-7. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.0098% to a maximum of 0.035%.
    • Borneol, ranging here from 2.0-9.0%  (Tisserand et al., pp.509-10) is a bicyclic monoterpenoid alcohol that occurs in a number of isomers, but (+)-Borneol, with the CAS number 464-43-7 predominates in nature. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.007% to a maximum of 0.0315%.
    • Verbenone, ranging here from 0-6.3% (Tisserand et al., p.646-7), is a bicyclic monoterpenoid alkane ketone that occurs in several isomers. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.0% to a maximum of 0.0221%.
    • (+)-Limonene, ranging here from 0-5.8% (Tisserand et al., p.408), is further described above, under lemon grass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) leaf essential oil. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.0% to a maximum of 0.0203%.
    • β-pinene, ranging here from 0.3-5.0% (Tisserand et al., pp.620-1), is a bicyclic monoterpenoid alkene that occurs in several isomers. It is usually found in plants along with α-pinene, but in a lower concentration. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.0105% to a maximum of 0.0175%.
    • β-Myrcene, ranging here from 0-4.6%, is an aliphatic monoterpenoid alkene with the CAS number 123-35-3, and is a known antioxidant. It is found in over 200 species of plants, and is emitted by a large number of trees. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.0% to a maximum of 0.0161%.
    • α-Terpineol, ranging here from 0-3.8% (Tisserand et al., pp.635), is a monocyclic monoterpenoid alkene alcohol with the CAS number 10482-56-1. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.0% to a maximum of 0.0133%.
    • α-Phellandrene, ranging here from 0-3.2% (Tisserand et al., pp.614-15), is a monocyclic monoterpenoid alkene that occurs in several isomers. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.0% to a maximum of 0.0112%.
    • β-Caryophyllene, ranging here from 0-2.5% (Tisserand et al., p.408), is a bicyclic sesquiterpenoid alkene with the CAS number 87-44-5. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.0% to a maximum of 0.00875%.
    • p-Cymene, ranging here from 0.5-2.4% (Tisserand et al., p.408), is a benzenoid monoterpenoid hydrocarbon with the CAS number 99-87-6. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.00175% to a maximum of 0.0084%.
  • Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) Leaf essential oil. (Tisserand et al., pp.248-9), is derived from the leaves of the small, evergreen, Ceylon cinnamon tree. This angiosperm tree, in the order Laurales (the laurels and magnolias), the family Lauraceae (the laurels), and the genus Cinnamomum, is native to Sri Lanka and is one of 250- 300 species in that genus, many of which are economically important. Essential oils from the leaves of this tree present a more favorable cleansing profile than oils extracted from its bark, hence its choice for this formula. The exact percentage of this specific essential oil that remains in the finished HabitatBiotics™ LR35 formula is not disclosed, but an amount equal to 0.17% of the raw mix volume was exploited in its production, a portion of which is removed during the curing process. Its major phytoconstituents are as follows:
    • Eugenol, ranging here from 68.6-87.0% (Tisserand et al., pp.556-61), is a phenylpropenoid phenolic ether with the CAS number 97-53-0. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.00199% to a maximum of 0.01479%.
    • Eugenyl acetate, ranging here from 1.0-8.1% (Tisserand et al., p.561), is a phenylpropenoid ether ester. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.00017% to a maximum of 0.00138%.
    • Linalool, ranging in concentration here from 2.0-5.0% (Tisserand et al., p.249), is described above, under lemon grass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) leaf essential oil. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.00034% to a maximum of 0.00085%.
    • (E)-Cinnamyl acetate, ranging here from 0.8-4.6% (Tisserand et al., p.532), is a phenylpropenoid ester represented by several isomers, one of which — (2Z)-Cinnamyl acetate, also known as cis-Cinnamyl acetate, with the CAS number  77134-01-1 — is the dominant form expressed in Cinnamomum verum leaf. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.000136% to a maximum of 0.000782%.
    • Benzyl benzoate, ranging here from trace-4.1% (Tisserand et al., pp.502-3), is a phenylmethyl benzenecarboxylate with the CAS number 120-51-4. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of trace% to a maximum of 0.000697%.
    • β-Caryophyllene, ranging here from 1.9-3.7% (Tisserand et al., p.249), is described above, under rosemary (Salvia rosmarinus) leaf essential oil. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.000323% to a maximum of 0.000629%.
    • (E)-Cinnamaldehyde, ranging here from 0.6-1.1% (Tisserand et al., p.527-31), is a phenylpropenoid aldehyde with trans– and cis– isomers; (2E)-Cinnamaldehyde — its trans- isomer, with the CAS number 14371-10-9 — predominates in Cinnamomum verum leaf essential oil. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.102% to a maximum of 0.000187%.
    • Safrole, ranging here from 0-1.0% (Tisserand et al., pp.627-30), is a phenylpropenoid ether with the CAS number 94-59-7. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.0% to a maximum of 0.00017%.
    • Cinnamyl alcohol, ranging here from 0-0.6% (Tisserand et al., pp.532), is a phenylpropenoid alcohol with trans– and cis– isomers; (2E)-Cinnamyl alcohol — its trans- isomer, with the CAS number 4407-36-7 — predominates in Cinnamomum verum leaf essential oil. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.0% to a maximum of 0.000102%.
  • Frankincense (Boswellia serrata, Indian) essential oil is derived from the aromatic gum resin (Tisserand et al., pp.287-9) obtained from angiosperm trees in the order Sapindales (an order containing the citrus, maples, rambutans, frankincense, myrrh, mahogany, and neem trees), and the family Burseraceae (also known as the torchwood family, the frankincense and myrrh family, and the incense tree family). The genus Boswellia contains four primary species that produce true frankincense, and each species produces various grades, depending partly on the time of harvesting, partly on the specific quality of the resin exuded by individual trees. The exact percentage of this specific essential oil that remains in the finished HabitatBiotics™ LR35 formula is not disclosed, but an amount equal to 0.17% of the raw mix volume was exploited in its production, a portion of which is removed during the curing process. The major phytoconstituents known to be present in the essential oils produced from this resin are listed below:
    • α-Thujene, ranging here from 26.2-47.4%, is a monoterpene, and a double bond isomer of sabinene. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.0045% to a maximum of 0.00806%.
    • α-Pinene, ranging here from 0-11.2% (Tisserand et al., p.288), is described above, under rosemary (Salvia rosmarinus). In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.0% to a maximum of 0.001904%.
    • Tetrahydro-linalool, ranging here from 7.0-10.6% (Tisserand et al., p.288). In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.00119% to a maximum of 0.0018%.
    • δ-3 Carene, ranging here from 3.6-9.6% (Tisserand et al., p.288), is a bicyclic monoterpenoid alkane with cis- and trans- isomers. Its trans– isomer, (1R)-trans-3-Carene, predominates and is the form represented in frankincense. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.000612% to a maximum of 0.00163%.
    • epi-Cubenol, ranging here from 3.4-9.1%, is a carbobicyclic sesquiterpenoid with the CAS number 81939-29-9. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.% to a maximum of 0.00155%. 
    • (+)-Limonene, ranging in concentration here from 0.7-8.5% (Tisserand et al., p.288), is described above, under lemon grass (Cymbopogon flexuosus). In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.000578% to a maximum of 0.001445%. 
    • α-Terpineol, ranging here from 1.5-5.8% (Tisserand et al., p.635), is a monocyclic monoterpenoid alcohol with the CAS number 10482-56-1. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.000255% to a maximum of 0.000986%.
    • Benzyl tiglate, ranging here from 1.9-5.5%, is exempt from registration. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.000323% to a maximum of 0.000935%.
    • 10-epi-γ-Eudesmol, ranging here from 0-5.3% (Tisserand et al., p.556), is a bicyclic sesquiterpenoid alkene alcohol with the CAS number 1209-71.8. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.0% to a maximum of 0.000901%.
    • Terpinyl isobutyrate, ranging here from 0-3.9% (Tisserand et al., p.288), is a p-menthane monoterpenoid with the CAS number 7774-65-4. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.0% to a maximum of 0.000663%.
    • Eudesmol, ranging here from 0.9-3.4% (Tisserand et al., p.288), is a bicyclic sesquiterpenoid alkene alcohol that exists in more than one isomer. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.x% to a maximum of 0.000578%.
    • Methyl isoeugenol, ranging here from 1.3-3.1% (Tisserand et al., p.288), is a phenylpropanoid, the methyl ether of isoeugenol; it can occur as both (E)- and (Z)- isomers. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.000221% to a maximum of 0.000527%.
    • p-Cymene, ranging here from 1.6-2.8% (Tisserand et al., p.288), is described above, under rosemary (Salvia rosmarinus). In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.000272% to a maximum of 0.000476%.
    • α-Terpinene, ranging here from 0.3-2.7% (Tisserand et al., p.288), is a monocyclic monoterpenoid alkene with the CAS number 99-86-5. It is isomeric with β- and γ- terpinenes. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.000051% to a maximum of 0.000459%.
    • (E)-Geraniol, ranging here from 0-2.4% (Tisserand et al., p.288), is described above, under lemon grass (Cymbopogon flexuosus). In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.0% to a maximum of 0.000408%.
    • Nerolidol, ranging here from 0-2.1% (Tisserand et al., p.608-9), is an aliphatic sesquiterpenoid alkene alcohol that is represented in nature in multiple isomers. Identity of specific isomer(s) represented in extracts from Boswellia serrata is obscure. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.0% to a maximum of 0.357%.
    • β-Phellandrene, ranging here from 0-1.2% (Tisserand et al., p.288), is a monoterpenoid hydrocarbon. It is found in ginger root, curry leaf, tomato. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.0% to a maximum of 0.000204%.
    • Sabinene, ranging here from 0.4-1.0% (Tisserand et al., p.288), is a  bicyclic monoterpenoid alkene with the CAS number 3387-41-5. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.000068% to a maximum of 0.00017%.
    • Estragole, ranging here from 0-0.4% (Tisserand et al., p.553) is a phenylpropenoid ether with the CAS number 140-67-0. It is found in a wide variety of commonly used culinary and salad herbs and spices, including tarragon (estragon is the French name for tarragon), basil, anise, fennel, savory, and bay. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.0% to a maximum of 0.000068%.

Phytoconstituent Extractives:

  • Oregano (Origanum vulgare, subsp. hirtum) leaf extract Tisserand et al., pp.375-6. Known as oregano, this herb is derived from the leaves of a woody perennial angiosperm in the order Lamiales, the family Lamiaceae (mints, deadnettles, and sages), and the genus Origanum. Of the 54 recognized species in this genus, Origanum vulgare has the most agreeable profile for use in HabitatBiotics™ LR35 in terms of cleansing utility. The exact percentage of this specific herb that was extracted into the finished HabitatBiotics™ LR35 formula is not disclosed, but an estimated amount equal to 0.048% of the raw herb weight was exploited in its production.
  • The major phytoconstituents known to be present in this herb are listed below:
    • Carvacrol, ranging here from 61.6-83.4% (Tisserand et al., p.517), is a monoterpenoid phenol, isomeric with thymol, with the CAS number 499-75-2. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.0296% to a maximum of 0.04%.
    • p-Cymene, ranging here from 4.9-9.7% (Tisserand et al., p.375), is described above, under rosemary (Salvia rosmarinus) leaf extract. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.00235% to a maximum of 0.00466%.
    • γ-Terpinene, ranging here from 3.8-8.2% (Tisserand et al., p.375), is described above, under rosemary (Salvia rosmarinus). In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.00235% to a maximum of 0.00394%.
    • Thymol, ranging here from 0.3-4.4% (Tisserand et al., p.641), is a monoterpenoid phenol, isomeric with carvacrol, with the CAS number 89-83-8. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.000144% to a maximum of 0.00211%.
    • β-Caryophyllene, ranging here from 1.4-2.5(Tisserand et al., p.375), is described above, under rosemary (Salvia rosmarinus) essential oil. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.000672% to a maximum of 0.0012%.
    • α-Pinene, ranging here from 0.5-2.2% (Tisserand et al., p.375), is described above, under rosemary (Salvia rosmarinus). In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.00024% to a maximum of 0.001056%.
    • β-Myrcene, ranging here from 0-1.9% (Tisserand et al., p.375), is described above, under rosemary (Salvia rosmarinus) Essential Oil. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.0% to a maximum of 0.000912%.
    • α-Terpinene, ranging here from 0.8-1.4% (Tisserand et al., p.375), is described above, under frankincense (Boswellia serrata, Indian). In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.000384% to a maximum of 0.000672%.
  • Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) bud extract Tisserand et al., pp.254-6, is derived from the flower buds of the clove tree, a native of the Maluku islands in Indonesia. The exact percentage of this specific herb that was extracted into the finished HabitatBiotics™ LR35 formula is not disclosed, but an estimated amount equal to 0.017% of the raw herb weight was exploited in its production. The major phytoconstituents known to be present in this herb are listed below:
    • Eugenol, ranging here from 73.5-96.9% (Tisserand et al., p.254), is described above, under cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum). In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.0125% to a maximum of 0.0165%.
    • β-Caryophyllene, ranging here from 0.6-12.4(Tisserand et al., p.254), is described above, under rosemary (Salvia rosmarinus) leaf essential oil. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.000102% to a maximum of 0.00211%.
    • Eugenyl acetate, ranging here from 0.5-10.7% (Tisserand et al., p.254), is described above, under cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum). In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.00085% to a maximum of 0.00182%.
    • α-Caryophyllene, ranging here from 0.4-1.4% (Tisserand et al., p.254), is a monocyclic sesquiterpenoid alkene with the CAS number 6753-98-6. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.000068% to a maximum of 0.000238%.
    • Isoeugenol, ranging here from 0.1-0.2% (Tisserand et al., p.575) is a phenylpropenoid phenolic ether that is isomeric with eugenol and is represented in nature as both trans– [(1E)-Isoeugenol] and cis– [(1Z)-Isoeugenol] isomers. The dominant form observed in clove bud is the cis– isomer, with the CAS number 5912-86-7. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.000017% to a maximum of 0.000034%.
    • Methyleugenol, ranging here from 0-0.2% (Tisserand et al., p.597) is a phenylpropenoid ether with the CAS number 93-15-2. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.0% to a maximum of 0.000034%.
  • Black Pepper (Piper nigrum) extract Tisserand et al., p.384-5, is derived from the peppercorn fruit of its flowering vine. The plant is native to the Malabar coast of the southwest portion of India. Black pepper has been used in traditional medicine and cuisine for thousands of years. One of the most valuable properties of black pepper extract has to do with its ability to serve as a bioavailability enhancer when combined with other phytoconstituents. It appears to accomplish this by inhibiting enzymes in the CYP family. The exact percentage of this specific herb that was extracted into the finished HabitatBiotics™ LR35 formula is not disclosed, but an estimated amount equal to 0.011% of the raw herb weight was exploited in its production. The major phytoconstituents known to be present in this herb are listed below:
    • β-Caryophyllene, ranging here from 9.4-30.9(Tisserand et al., p.384), is described above, under lemon grass (Cymbopogon flexuosus). In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.00103% to a maximum of 0.003399%.
    • (+)-Limonene, ranging here from 16.4-24.4% (Tisserand et al., p.384), is described above, under lemon grass (Cymbopogon flexuosus). In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.0018% to a maximum of 0.00268%.
    • α-Pinene, ranging here from 1.1-16.2% (Tisserand et al., p.384), is described above, under rosemary (Salvia rosmarinus). In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.000121% to a maximum of 0.00178%.
    • δ-3 Carene, ranging here from trace-15.5% (Tisserand et al., p.384), is described above, under frankincense (Boswellia serrata, Indian). In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of TRACE% to a maximum of 0.00171%.
    • β-pinene, ranging here from 4.9-14.3% (Tisserand et al., p.385), is described above, under rosemary (Salvia rosmarinus). In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.000539% to a maximum of 0.00157%.
    • Sabinene, ranging here from 0.1-13.8% (Tisserand et al., p.385), is described above, under frankincense (Boswellia serrata, Indian). In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.000011% to a maximum of 0.00152%.
    • β-Bisabolene, ranging here from 0.1-5.2% (Tisserand et al., p.385), is a monocyclic sesquiterpenoid with the CAS number 495-62-5. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.000011% to a maximum of 0.000572%.
    • α-Copaene, ranging here from 0.1-3.9% (Tisserand et al., p.385), is a sesquiterpenoid hydrocarbon with the CAS number 3856-25-5. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.000011% to a maximum of 0.000429%.
    • (E)-β-Farnesene, ranging here from trace-3.3% (Tisserand et al., p.385), is one of two beta isomers of the six-isomer sequiterpenoid farnesene. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of TRACE% to a maximum of 0.000363%.
    • α-Cubebene, ranging here from 0.2-1.6% (Tisserand et al., p.385), is a tricyclic sesquiterpenoid with the CAS number 17699-14-8. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.000022% to a maximum of 0.000176%.
  • Coffee (Coffea sp.) green bean extract. Polysaccharides, lipids, and proteins comprise the major components of green coffee beans, followed by the minor components caffeine, trigonelline, and chlorogenic acids. Two species of coffee are dominant in today’s market, namely Coffea arabica L. (arabica coffee, with the CAS number 97593-13-0) and Coffea canephora Pierre (robusta coffee). Of the two, about 65% of the world’s coffee production is derived from Coffea arabica. Caffeine content is slightly higher in robusta, while antioxident functionality is higher in robusta (by as much as double that of arabica). HabitatBiotics™ LR35 uses extracts from green arabica beans, chiefly for the cleansing functionalities associated with caffeine, trigonelline, and chlorogenic acids. The exact percentage of this specific herb that was extracted into the finished HabitatBiotics™ LR35 formula is not disclosed, but an estimated amount equal to 0.008% of the raw herb weight was exploited in its production. The major phytoconstituents known to be present in this herb are listed below:
    • Caffeine is one of several methylated xanthines, which besides caffeine include theobromine and theophylline. The caffeine content of dry, green arabica beans varies from 1.2-1.5%. It and chlorogenic acid are the most biologically active compounds in coffee beans. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.000096% to a maximum of 0.00012%.
    • Trigonelline, with the IUPAC name 1-Methylpyridin-1-ium-3-carboxylate, is an alkaloid whose content in dry, green arabica coffee beans varies from 1-3%. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.00008% to a maximum of 0.00024%.
    • Chlorogenic acid is the ester of caffeic acid and (-)-quinic acid, and functions as the intermediate in the synthesis of lignin, a class of the complex organic polymers forming important structural components of woody plants. Its content in dry, green arabica coffee beans varies from 5.96-6.40%. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.000448% to a maximum of 0.000512%.
    • Over 300 separate phytoconstituents have been isolated from green arabica beans.
  • Burdock (Arctium lappa) root extract, is added to the formulation of HabitatBiotics™ LR35 for its inulin fraction, which aids in breaking the surface tension of liquid applications, and permits a more uniform spread on applied surfaces. The exact percentage of this specific herb that was extracted into the finished HabitatBiotics™ LR35 formula is not disclosed, but an estimated amount equal to 0.007% of the raw herb weight was exploited in its production. The following list is adapted from Golbaz et al., 2018 “The Essential Oil Composition of Arctium lappa Root and Leaf”, Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2018 14(2):1-6:
    • 1,3-Cyclooctadiene, averaging here at 33.2%, is a cyclic hydrocarbon that along with its various isomers has gained value in usages related to chemical reactions involving certain metals. It is used to synthesize several other organic compounds, mainly used as a ligand in organometallics. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its average concentration from this source is estimated at 0.00232%.
    • (E)-Caryophyllene, averaging here at 6.8%, is a sesquiterpenoid alkene. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its average concentration from this source is estimated at 0.000476%.
    • β-Selinene, averaging here at 5.6%, is a sesquiterpenoid hydrocarbon. Besides Burdock root, it is found in calamondin orange and celery seeds. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its average concentration from this source is estimated at 0.000392%.
    • 9,10-dehydro-isolongifolene, averaging here at 5.5%, is a carbotricyclic compound. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its average concentration from this source is estimated at 0.000385%.
    • n-Butyl phthalate (also known as dibutyl phthalate), averaging here at 3.8%, is non corrosive and has a low acute toxicity. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its average concentration from this source is estimated at 0.000266%.
    • α-Selinene, averaging here at 3.4%, is a sesquiterpene and a major constituent of celery seed. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its average concentration from this source is estimated at 0.000238%.
    • Diisobutyl phthalate, averaging here at 3.4%, is similar to dibutyl phthalate, described above. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its average concentration from this source is estimated at 0.000238%.
    • 7-methyl 3,4-octadiene, averaging here at 3.3%, is also known as acetylated myrcene. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its average concentration from this source is estimated at 0.000231%.
    • α-Bisabolol, averaging here in concentrations of 3.1%, is a monocyclic sesquiterpenoid alkene alcohol represented by several isomers. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its average concentration from this source is estimated at 0.000217%.
    • Cyperene, averaging here at 2.5%, is a sesquiterpenoid hydrocarbon. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its average concentration from this source is estimated at 0.000175%.
    • α-Caryophyllene (synonymous with α-Humulene), averaging here at 2.2%, is a monocyclic sesquiterpenoid alkene with the CAS number 6753-98-6. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its average concentration from this source is estimated at 0.000154%.
    • Edusema-4,11,dien-2ol, averages here at 2.0%. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its average concentration from this source is estimated at 0.00014%.
    • α-Bergamotene, averaging here 1.7%, is, as with all the bergamotenes, biosynthesized from farnesyl pyrophosphare via a variety of enzymes, including exo-alpha-bergamotene synthase, (+)-endo-beta-bergamotene synthase, etc. Bergamotenes, in turn, are intermediates in the biosenthesis of more complex compounds. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its average concentration from this source is estimated 0.000119%.
    • β-Panasinsene, averaging here at 1.7%, is a polycyclic sesquiterpenoid aliphatic hydrocarbon. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its average concentration from this source is estimated at 0.000119%.
    • Phytol, averaging here at 1.4%, is an aliphatic diterpenoid alkene alcohol with the CAS number 99265-64-2 (Tisserand et al., p.617). Phytol is ubiquitous in plants as an esterified component and a decomposition product of chlorophyl. It is not often found in essential oils, but may be common in aqueous extracts of whole herbs and spices, and in extracts of their roots, leaves, and reproductive structures. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its average concentration from this source is estimated at 0.000098%.
    • (Z)-α-Bisabolene, here averaging 1.3%, is used as a flavoring and fragrance. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its average concentration from this source is estimated at 0.000091%.
    • γ-Cadinene, averaging in concentration here at 1.3%, is a bicyclic sesquiterpenoid alkene with the CAS number 1460-97-5 (Tisserand et al., p.511). Other isomers exist, and both γ and δ occur in over 150 essential oils. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its average concentration from this source is estimated at 0.000091%.
    • β-Maaliene, here averaging 1.0%, is a sesquiterpenoid, a carbotricyclic compound and a polycyclic olefin. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its average concentration from this source is estimated at 0.00007%.
    • β-Elemene, averaging in concentration here at 1.0%, is a monocyclic sesquiterpenoid polyalkene with the CAS number 11029-06-4. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its average concentration from this source is estimated at 0.00007%.
    • 4,4-Dimethyl-3-(3-methylbut-3-enylidene)-2-methylenebicyclo[4.1.0]heptanes 1.0%. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its average concentration from this source is estimated at 0.00007%.
    • δ-Cadinene, averaging in concentration here at 0.8%, is described immediately above, under this heading (burdock root extract). In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its average concentration from this source is estimated at 0.000056%.
    • 15-Copaenol, averaging here at 0.8%, is a tricyclic sesquiterpenoid hydrocarbon. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its average concentration from this source is estimated at 0.000056%.
    • Allo-aromadendrene, averaging in concentration here at 0.8%, is a tricyclic sesquiterpenoid alkene with the CAS number 25246-27-9. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its average concentration from this source is estimated at 0.000021%.
    • 2-Phenylethanol, averaging in concentration here at 0.3%, is a benzenoid alcohol with the CAS number 60-12-8. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its average concentration from this source is estimated at 0.000056%.
  • Rosemary (Salvia rosmarinus) needle extract. See Rosemary essential oil, above. The exact percentage of this specific herb that was extracted into the finished HabitatBiotics™ LR35 formula is not disclosed, but an estimated amount equal to 0.007% of the raw herb weight was exploited in its production.
    • Camphor, ranging here from 17.0-27.3% (Tisserand et al., pp.512-16) is a monoterpenoid phenol with the CAS number 464-49-3, and is also known as 2-Bornanone and 2-Camphanone. It is found in at least 61 individual herbs and their chemotypes. It is a major constituent of Ho Leaf (42.0-84.1%), as well as lavender, wormwood and sage. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.00119% to a maximum of 0.00191%.
    • 1,8-Cineole, ranging here from 17.0-22.5% (Tisserand et al., p.408), is a bicyclic monoterpenoid ether also known as Eucalyptol, Cajeputol and 1,8-Epoxy-p-menthane, with the CAS number 470-67-7; it is a major constituent of seven species of botanicals in the genus Eucalyptus and of eleven additional botanicals; it typically is absent in East Indian lemon grass, but is present in West Indian lemon grass in concentrations ranging from 0-2.9% (Tisserand, et al., pp.523-4). It is found in over 200 essential oils, usually in concentrations below 10%. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.000119% to a maximum of 0.00158%.
    • α-Pinene, ranging here from 4.4-22.0% (Tisserand et al., p.618-20), is a bicyclic monoterpenoid alkene that occurs in several isomers including (1R)-(+)-α-Pinene, also known as Australene, which is the isomer usually found in North American pine oils and has the CAS number 7785-70-8; (1S)-(-)-α-Pinene is the dominant isomer in European pine oils and has the CAS number 7785-76-4. Over 400 botanicals are known to contain α-Pinene. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.000308% to a maximum of 0.00154%.
    • γ-Terpinene, ranging here from 0.5-10.8% (Tisserand et al., p.408), is a monocyclic monoterpeoid alkene with the CAS number 99-85-4. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.000035% to a maximum of 0.000756%. 
    • Camphene, ranging here from 2.8-10.0% (Tisserand et al., p.512), is a bicyclic monoterpenoid alkane that occurs in several isomers, including (+)-Camphene with the CAS number 5794-03-6, and (-)-Camphene with the CAS number 5794-04-7. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.00196% to a maximum of 0.0007%.
    • Borneol, ranging here from 2.0-9.0%  (Tisserand et al., pp.509-10) is a bicyclic monoterpenoid alcohol that occurs in a number of isomers, but (+)-Borneol, with the CAS number 464-43-7 predominates in nature. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.00014% to a maximum of 0.00063%.
    • Verbenone, ranging here from 0-6.3% (Tisserand et al., p.646-7), is a bicyclic monoterpenoid alkane ketone that occurs in several isomers. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.0% to a maximum of 0.000441%.
    • (+)-Limonene, ranging here from 0-5.8% (Tisserand et al., p.408), is further described above, under lemon grass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) leaf essential oil. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.0% to a maximum of 0.000406%.
    • β-pinene, ranging here from 0.3-5.0% (Tisserand et al., pp.620-1), is a bicyclic monoterpenoid alkene that occurs in several isomers. It is usually found in plants along with α-pinene, but in a lower concentration. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.000021% to a maximum of 0.00035%.
    • β-Myrcene, ranging here from 0-4.6%, is an aliphatic monoterpenoid alkene with the CAS number 123-35-3, and is a known antioxidant. It is found in over 200 species of plants, and is emitted by a large number of trees. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.0% to a maximum of 0.000322%.
    • α-Terpineol, ranging here from 0-3.8% (Tisserand et al., pp.635), is a monocyclic monoterpenoid alkene alcohol with the CAS number 10482-56-1. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.0% to a maximum of 0.000266%.
    • α-Phellandrene, ranging here from 0-3.2% (Tisserand et al., pp.614-15), is a monocyclic monoterpenoid alkene that occurs in several isomers. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.0% to a maximum of 0.000224%.
    • β-Caryophyllene, ranging here from 0-2.5% (Tisserand et al., p.408), is a bicyclic sesquiterpenoid alkene with the CAS number 87-44-5. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.0% to a maximum of 0.0000175%.
    • p-Cymene, ranging here from 0.5-2.4% (Tisserand et al., p.408), is a benzenoid monoterpenoid hydrocarbon with the CAS number 99-87-6. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.000035% to a maximum of 0.000168%.
  • Cassia (Cinnamomum cassia) bark extract Tisserand et al., pp.235-7. This plant, one of 300+ species of trees and shrubs in the genus Cinnamomum, is known as Cassia, Chinese cassia, and Chinese cinnamon. In the U.S., the U.K., and India, the most common spice sold in grocery stores as cinnamon is actually cassia, instead. In stick form it and other forms of cinnamon can easily be distinguished from true cinnamon by virtue of the fact that true cinnamon sticks are soft, laminar, and easily ground into powder, while cassia and Saigon cinnamon sticks are sturdy and hard to grind. More than 160 separate phytochemicals have been identified in extracts from its bark. The exact percentage of this specific herb that was extracted into the finished HabitatBiotics™ LR35 formula is not disclosed, but an estimated amount equal to 0.005% of the raw herb weight was exploited in its production. The major phytoconstituents known to be present in this spice are listed below:
    • (E)-Cinnamaldehyde, ranging here from 73.2-89.4% (Tisserand et al., p.235), is described above, under cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum). In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.00366% to a maximum of 0.00447%.
    • (2Z)-Cinnamaldehyde, ranging here from 0.8-12.3% (Tisserand et al., p.527), is a phenylpropenoid aldehyde with the CAS number 57194-69-1. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.00004% to a maximum of 0.00447%.
    • (E)-Cinnamyl acetate, ranging here from 0.1-5.4% (Tisserand et al., p.235), is described above, under cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum). In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.000005% to a maximum of 0.00027%.
    • Benzaldehyde, ranging here from 0.4-2.3% (Tisserand et al., p.495), is a benzenoid aldehyde with the CAS number 100-52-7. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.00002% to a maximum of 0.000115%.
    • 2-Phenylethyl acetate, ranging here from 0-2.3% Tisserand et al., p.616), is a benzenoid ester with the CAS number 103-45-7. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.0% to a maximum of 0.000115%.
    • α-Terpineol, ranging here from trace-2.0% (Tisserand et al., p.235), is described above, under frankincense (Boswellia serrata, Indian). In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of trace% to a maximum of 0.0001%.
    • Coumarin, ranging here from trace-1.9% (Tisserand et al., p.541), is a benzenoid lactone with the CAS number 91-64-5. High dose oral coumarin may cause idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity in humans but topical coumarin does not. It is not a topical irritant or toxicant. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of trace% to a maximu of 0.000095%.
    • Salicylaldehyde, ranging here from 0.04-1.8% (Tisserand et al., p.630) is a phenolic aldehyde with the CAS number 90-02-8. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.00002% to a maximum of 0.00009%.
    • Borneol, ranging here from trace-1.3% (Tisserand et al., p.235), is described above, under rosemary (Salvia rosmarinus). In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of trace% to a maximum of 0.000065%.
    • Benzyl benzoate, ranging here from trace-1.0% (Tisserand et al., p.235), is described above, under cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum). In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of trace% to a maximum of 0.00005%.
    • Cinnamyl alcohol, ranging here from 0-0.04% (Tisserand et al., p.235), is described above, under cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum). In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.0% to a maximum of 0.00002%.
  • Lavender (Lavandula latifolia) floret extract (Tisserand et al., pp.329-30), also referred to as spike, or Lavandula spica, is a broadleaved lavender native to the western Mediterranean, stretching from southern France to northern Italy to the east, and westward through Spain. It is more robust in scent than Lavandula augustifolia, narrow-leaf lavender, owing to a greater fraction of camphor in its essential oil. As Harborne & Williams point out in their chapter titled “Phytochemistry of the genus Lavandula,” from the 2002 book “Lavender,” edited by Maria Lis-Balchin, the plants in this genus are known to have over 150 phytochemicals, many as trace components. The exact percentage of this specific herb that was extracted into the finished HabitatBiotics™ LR35 formula is not disclosed, but an estimated amount equal to 0.005% of the raw herb weight was exploited in its production. The major phytoconstituents known to be present in this herb are listed below:
    • Linalool, ranging here from 27.2-43.1% (Tisserand et al., p.329), is described above, under lemon grass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) leaf essential oil. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.00136% to a maximum of 0.002155%.
    • 1,8-Cineole, ranging here from 28.0-34.9% (Tisserand et al., p.329), is described above, under rosemary (Salvia rosmarinus) leaf essential oil. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.0014% to a maximum of 0.00175%.
    • Camphor, ranging here from 10.8-23.2% (Tisserand et al., p.329), is described above, under rosemary (Salvia rosmarinus) leaf essential oil. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.00054% to a maximum of 0.00116%.
    • Borneol, ranging here from 0.9-3.6% (Tisserand et al., p.329), is described above, under rosemary (Salvia rosmarinus). In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.000045% to a maximum of 0.00018%.
    • β-pinene, ranging here from 0.8-2.6% (Tisserand et al., p.329), is described above, under rosemary (Salvia rosmarinus). In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.00004% to a maximum of 0.00013%.
    • (E)-α-Bisabolene, ranging here from 0.5-2.3% (Tisserand et al., p.329) is a sesquiterpnoid produced from farnesal phrophosphate. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.000025% to a maximum of 0.000115%.
    • α-Pinene, ranging here from 0.6-1.9% (Tisserand et al., p.329), is described above, under rosemary (Salvia rosmarinus). In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.00003% to a maximum of 0.000095%.
    • β-Caryophyllene, ranging here from 0.5-1.9(Tisserand et al., p.329), is described above, under rosemary (Salvia rosmarinus) leaf essential oil. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.000025% to a maximum of 0.000095%.
    • α-Terpineol, ranging here from 0.8-1.6% (Tisserand et al., p.329), is described above, under frankincense (Boswellia serrata, Indian) gum resin extract. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.00004% to a maximum of 0.00008%.
    • Germacrene D, ranging here from 0.3-1.0% (Tisserand et al., p.329), is a sesquiterpenoid hydrocarbon. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.000015% to a maximum of 0.00005%.
  • Catnip (Nepeta cataria) leaf extract Tisserand et al. p.237. N. cataria is an angiosperm, and a member of the order Lamiales, and the family Lamiaceae (mints, deadnettles, and sages). The genus Nepeta is comprised of about 250 species, mostly herbaceous perennials with sturdy stems, aromatic heart-shaped leaves, and equally aromatic flowers. The exact percentage of this specific herb that was extracted into the finished HabitatBiotics™ LR35 formula is not disclosed, but an estimated amount equal to 0.002% of the raw herb weight was exploited in its production. The major phytoconstituents known to be present in this herb are listed below:
    • (E,Z)-Nepetalactone, ranging here from 12.7-84.0% (Tisserand et al., p.607), is a bicyclic monoterpenoid alkene lactone. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.000254% to a maximum of 0.00168%.
    • (S)-α-Nepetalic acid, ranging here from 1.2-43.0% (Tisserand et al., p.607), is a monocyclic monoterpenoid aldehyde carboxylic acid with the CAS number 32203-60-4. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.000024% to a maximum of 0.00086%.
    • Dihydronepetalactone, ranging here from 0-25.0% (Tisserand et al., p.607), is a hydrogenated form of nepetalactone. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.0% to a maximum of 0.0005%.
    • β-Caryophyllene, ranging here from 0.5-1.9(Tisserand et al., p.237), is described above, under rosemary (Salvia rosmarinus) leaf essential oil. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.00001% to a maximum of 0.000038%.
    • β-Caryophyllene oxide, ranging here from 14.3-19.4 (Tisserand et al., p.521), is a bicyclic sesquiterpenoid alkene epoxide with the CAS number 1139-30-6. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.000286% to a maximum of 0.000388%.
    • (E)-β-Farnesene, ranging here from 0-2.1% (Tisserand et al., p. 237), is one of six isomers of the sesquiterpenoid farnesene, though the β- isomer has but one naturally occurring isomer. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.0% to a maximum of 0.000042%.
    • Piperitone, ranging here from 0-1.5% (Tisserand et al., p.622), is a monocyclic monoterpenoid alkene ketone with several isomers. It is a non-irritant and non-allergenic, and is not mutagenic. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.0% to a maximum of 0.00003%.
    • α-Caryophyllene, ranging here from 0-1.3% (Tisserand et al., p.237), is described above, under clove (Syzygium aromaticum) bud extract. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.0% to a maximum of 0.000026%.
    • β-Elemene, ranging here from 0-1.2% (Tisserand et al., p.551), is a monocyclic sesquiterpenoid polyalkene with several isomers. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.0% to a maximum of 0.000024%.
  • Lemon Grass (Cymbopogon sp.) leaf extract. See Lemon Grass Essential Oil, above. The exact percentage of this specific herb that was extracted into the finished HabitatBiotics™ LR35 formula is not disclosed, but an estimated amount equal to 0.002% of the raw herb weight was exploited in its production.
    • (E)-Geranial, ranging here from 45.1-54.5% (Tisserand et al. p.564), is an aliphatic monoterpenoid alkene aldehyde with the CAS number 141-27-5. It is an isomer of neral and a component of citral. Besides its presence in lemon grass, it is also a major constituent of lemon myrtle (46.1-60.7%). In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.000902% to a maximum of 0.00109%.
    • Neral, ranging here from 30.1-36.1% (Tisserand et al. p.607), is an aliphatic monoterpenoid alkene aldehyde with the CAS number 106-26-3 It is an isomer of geranial and a component of citral. Besides its presence in lemon grass, it too is an important constituent of lemon myrtle (32.0-40.9%). In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.000602% to a maximum of 0.000722%.
    • β-Citronellal, ranging here from 5.2-46.8% (Tisserand et al., pp.537-8), is an aliphatic monoterpenoid alkene aldehyde with two CAS numbers: 2385-77-5 [(3R)-(+)-β-Citronellal] and 5949-05-3 [(3S)-(-)-β-Citronellal], is a major constituent of combava leaf (a citrus native to the Indonesian island of Sumbawa, similar to lime with a smaller fruit that exhibits a more acidic aroma), having concentrations ranging from 58.9-81.5%. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.000104% to a maximum of 0.00136%.
    • β-Caryophyllene oxide, ranging here from 0-1.6% (Tisserand et al., pp. 521-2), isa bicyclic sesquiterpenoid alkene epoxide with the CAS number 1139-30-6, a moderate constituent of catnip (14.3-19.4%).  In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.0% to a maximum of 0.000032%.
    • (E)-Geraniol, ranging here from 0-6.7% (Tisserand, et al., pp. 565-7), is an aliphatic monoterpenoid alkene alcohol with the CAS number 106-24-1. It is an isomer of linalool and nerol and  a major constituent of Bergamot (86.8-93.2%). In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.0% to a maximum of 0.000134%.
    • (E)-Geranyl acetate, ranging here from 0.1-4.0% (Tisserand et al., p.568), is an aliphatic monoterpenoid alkane ester with the CAS number 105-87-3, and is also referred to as trans-Geranyl acetate and acetic acid trans-Geranyl ester. It is an important constituent of Thyme, where it is represented in concentrations of 36.5%. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.000002% to a maximum of 0.00008%.
    • (+)-Limonene, ranging here from 0.1-3.8% (Tisserand, et al., p.580-2), is a monocyclic monoterpenoid alkene with the CAS number 5989-27-5, and is also referred to as d-Limonene, Cinene, as well as several additional synonyms. It is a major constituent of 21 separate species of citrus, as well as such disparate botanical structures as celery seed (68.0-75.0%), European dill seed (35.9-68.4%), and Fir needles (54.7%). In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.000002% to a maximum of 0.000076%.
    • Methyl heptenone (6-Methylhept-5-en-2-one), ranging here from 0.3-1.4% (Tisserand et al. pp.599-600), is an aliphatic alkene ketone with the CAS number 409-02-9, and is also known as methyl isohexenyl ketone and sulcatone. It is a minor constituent of fenugreek (4.5%). In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.000006% to a maximum of 0.000028%.
    • Linalool, ranging here from 0.4-1.3% (Tisserand et al., pp.584-8), is an aliphatic monoterpenoid alkene alcohol with the CAS numbers 126-90-9 [(S)-(+)-Linalool, also known as coriandrol] and 126-91-0 [(R)-(-)-Linalool, also known as licareol], is a major constituent of Ho Wood (95%) and 19 other botanicalsIn HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.000008% to a maximum of 0.000026%.
  • Bay (Laurus nobilis) laurel leaf extract Tisserand et al., pp.323-4, is an evergreen tree in the order Laurales, the family Lauraceae, and the genus Laurus. This genus contains three recognized species, of which L. nobilis is cultivated widely for ornamental and culinary purposes. The exact percentage of this specific herb that was extracted into the finished HabitatBiotics™ LR35 formula is not disclosed, but an estimated amount equal to 0.002% of the raw herb weight was exploited in its production.The major phytoconstituents known to be present in this herb are listed below:
    • 1,8-Cineole, ranging here from 38.1-43.5% (Tisserand et al., p.323), is described above, under rosemary (Salvia rosmarinus) leaf essential oil. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.000762% to a maximum of 0.00087%.
    • α-Pinene, ranging here from 7.1-15.9% (Tisserand et al., p.323), is described above, under rosemary (Salvia rosmarinus). In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.000142% to a maximum of 0.000318%.
    • α-Terpinyl acetate, ranging here from 4.5-7.0% (Tisserand et al., p.636) is a monocyclic monoterpenoid alkene ester with the CAS number 80-26-2. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.00009% to a maximum of 0.00014%.
    • Linalool, ranging here from 6.2-6.5% (Tisserand et al., p.323), is described above, under lemon grass (Cymbopogon flexuosus). In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.000124% to a maximum of 0.00013%.
    • β-pinene, ranging here from 4.9-6.5% (Tisserand et al., p.323), is described above, under rosemary (Salvia rosmarinus). In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.000098% to a maximum of 0.00013%.
    • Sabinene, ranging here from 4.5-6.5% (Tisserand et al., p.323), is described above, under frankincense (Boswellia serrata, Indian). In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.00009% to a maximum of 0.00013%.
    • O-Methyleugenol, ranging here from 1.4-3.8% (Tisserand et al., p.323), is described above, under clove (Syzygium aromaticum) bud. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.000028% to a maximum of 0.000076%.
    • Eugenol, ranging here from 1.2-3.0% (Tisserand et al., p.323), is described above, under cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum). In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.000024% to a maximum of 0.00006%.
    • Camphene, ranging here from 0.7-2.9% (Tisserand et al., p.323), is described above, under rosemary (Salvia rosmarinus). In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.000014% to a maximum of 0.000058%.
    • (-)-Linalyl acetate, ranging here from 0.4-2.7% (Tisserand et al., p.588), is an aliphatic monoterpenoid alkene ester with the CAS number 16509-46-9. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.000008% to a maximum of 0.000054%.
    • (-)-Bornyl acetate, ranging here from 0.4-2.3% (Tisserand et al., p.510), is a bicyclic monoterpenoid ester with the CAS number 5655-61-8. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.000008% to a maximum of 0.000046%.
    • Terpinen-4-ol, ranging here from 2.1-2.2% (Tisserand et al., p.634), is a monocyclic monoterpenoid alkene ester with several isomers. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.000042% to a maximum of 0.000044%.
    • α-Terpineol, ranging here from 0.9-1.9% (Tisserand et al., p.323), is described above, under frankincense (Boswellia serrata, Indian). In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.000018% to a maximum of 0.000038%.
    • β-Myrcene, ranging here from 0.7-1.5% (Tisserand et al., p.323), is described above, under rosemary (Salvia rosmarinus) Essential Oil. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.000014% to a maximum of 0.00003%.
    • Borneol, ranging here from 0.1-1.5% (Tisserand et al., p.323), is described above, under rosemary (Salvia rosmarinus). In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.000002% to a maximum of 0.00003%.
    • β-Caryophyllene, ranging here from 0.1-1.5(Tisserand et al., p.323), is described above, under rosemary  (Salvia rosmarinus) essential oil. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.000002% to a maximum of 0.00003%.
    • Terpinolene, ranging here from 0.1-1.1% (Tisserand et al., p.636), is a monocyclic monoterpenoid alkene with the CAS number 586-62-9. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.000002% to a maximum of 0.000022%.
    • γ-Terpinene, ranging in concentration here from 0-1.0% (Tisserand et al., p.323), is described above, under rosemary (Salvia rosmarinus) essential oil. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 its concentration from this source is estimated to range from a low of 0.0% to a maximum of 0.00002%.
  • Purified Water. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 this component is stabilized at a concentration of < 93.101%.
  • SDA-38B Alcohol, prepared in accordance with U.S. CFR Title 27, Chap. 1, Part 1, Subpart G. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 this component is  stabilized at a concentration of < 5%.
  • Acetic acid, from naturally fermented, distilled white vinegar. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 this component is stabilized at a concentration of < 1.0%.
  • Thymol, technical grade. In HabitatBiotics™ LR35 this component is stabilized at a concentration of < 0.051%.

References:

  • Breitmaier, Eberhard. 2006. Terpenes; Flavors, Fragrances, Pharmaca, Pheromones. Wiley-VCH
  • Husnu Can Baser, et al. 2020. Handbook of Essential Oils: Science, Technology and Applications. Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
  • Lis-Balchin, Maria (editor). 2002. Lavender; The Genus Lavandula. Taylor & New York
  • Tisserand, Robert, & Rodney Young. 2014. Essential Oil Safety. Elsevier Press.

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