Index to North American Snakes 1

—- BugsInTheNews is a VIEWER-PARTICIPANT WEBSITE. This article by Jerry Cates, first published in June 2002, was last revised on 8 July 2012. © Bugsinthenews Vol. 04:06.


The index is arranged according to a taxonomical schema. The following describes the various classifications leading to those specifically germane to ophidians. All snakes are animals that are members of the:

—Phylum Chordata: these are animals that have, at some point in their life cycle, a hollow dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, and a post-anal tail.

—Subphylum Vertebrata: chordate animals with backbones and spinal columns;

—Class Reptilia: vertebrate animals that breathe air, lay shelled eggs (or, less often, give live birth), and have skins that are covered in scales and/or scutes.

—Order Squamata: reptiles whose skins bear horny scales or shields, and who possess movable quadrate bones that enable them to move the upper jaw separately from the bones of the braincase; these include the lizards, snakes, and worm lizards, represented by at least 9,150 species. Squamates are grouped together because they share a number of outward features that often cause them to be mistaken for one another. Of the 9,150 squamate species presently recognized, about 2,900 species are snakes, divided into fifteen families and 456 genera.

—Suborder Serpentes: elongated, legless, carnivorous reptiles without eyelids and external ears. In North America, only four families of snakes, with a total of 127 species, are represented.  A total of fifteen families, 456 genera and more than 2,900 species are recognized worldwide. The following index is confined to the five families, 45 genera, and 127 species native to North America. Two infraorders of snakes are recognized. The first, Scoleocophidia, includes the blind snakes and thread snakes. The second, Alethinophidia, includes all others. We begin this index with the infraorder Scoleocophidia:

I. Infraorder Scoleocophidia: Thread snakes and blind snakes. This infraorder includes all the blind and thread snakes found worldwide, of which 3 families, 12 genera, and about 250 species are presently recognized. All are small, usually ranging in length from 10-100 cm, but sometimes as small as 2 mm. All are fossorial (they live underground). Blind snakes in the Anomalepididae family are known as primitive blind snakes, and are found in Southern Central America and South America. Blind snakes in the Leptotyphlopidae family are known as slender blind snakes and are found in Africa, western Asia and the Americas, including North America. Blind snakes in the Typhlopidae family are known as long-tailed blind snakes and are found in most tropical and a number of subtropical regions of the world, including extreme southern Florida, where they are not native but were introduced.

A.  Family Leptotyphlopidae (Slender blind snakes; 1 N.A. Genus)

Texas Blind Snake (Leptotyphlops dulcis) Ashley D Temple TX 040610 head and neck frontal

Texas Blind Snake

1. Genus Leptotyphlops (86 species worldwide; 4 native to North America). These are small, earthworm-like snakes that are fossorial and feed primarily on ants and termites.

Blind snake (unk species) 4 Apr 2007, San Angelo TX, Renee P.

a. Texas blind snake (Leptotyphlops dulcis): the species is typically 5-8 in. long with a record of 10.25 in. Slender, without a constricted neck, and without enlarged ventral scales (the belly scales are indistinguishable from the dorsal scales), and distinguished from the Trans-Pecos blind snake by the presence of three small scales between the ocular scales, whereas the Plains blind snake and its subspecies have but one small scale betwixt the oculars; two subspecies are recognized.

Texas Blind Snake (Leptotyphlops dulcis); Ashley D., Temple, Texas–04.06.10

(1). Plains blind snake (Leptotyphlops dulcis dulcis): This subspecies of the Texas blind snake is distinguished from the New Mexico blind snake by having a single supralabial scale, whereas the former has two subralabials.

(2). New Mexico Blind Snake (Leptotyphlops dulcis dissectus): This subspecies of the Texas blind snake is distinguished from the New Mexico blind snake by the presence of two supralabial scales, whereas the former has but one.

b. Trans-Pecos Blind Snake (Leptotyphlops humilis segregus): typically 7-10 inches long, with a record length of 13.25 inches. Similar to the Texas blind snake except for the presence of only one small scale separating the ocular scales on top of the head. The ventral scales are identical to those of the dorsum. It is found in southwest Texas, the Big Bend region, and from western Coahuila to southeast Arizona.

B. Family Typhlopidae (Long-tailed blind snakes, also known as typical blind snakes) are native to tropical regions of Africa, Asia, the Americas, and all mainland Australia and various islands.  The rostral scale extends beyond and over the mouth to form a shovel-like structure used for burrowing. As they live underground in burrows, their eyes are vestigial, as light-detecting black eyespots. Teeth are present in the upper jaw, and the tail terminates in a horn-like scale that assists in burrowing. Most of the 6 genera and 203 species are oviparous. A single introduced genus is found in southern Florida:

1. Genus Ramphotyphlops: 49 species recognized worldwide; these snakes are native to Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, Hong Kong, China, the Lesser Sundas, Moluccas, Indonesia, the Philippines, the Palau Islands, Australia, New Guinea, the Bismark Archipelago, the Solomon Islands, the Loyalty Islands, the Fiji Islands and possibly New Calidonia. One species (introduced) is found in southern Florida:

a. Brahminy Blind Snake (Ramphotyphlops braminus): 4.125-65 in. typ.; 6.825 in. max. It is distinguished from snakes in the Leptotyphlopidae family by being darker, being a dark gray, dark brown, or black dorsum, and a lighter snout, lower lips, chin, throat, tip of tail, and perineum, which may be white to buffy yellow (Conant & Collins, 1998, p. 283). This serpent requires moist, loose soil to survive. It often hides in the roots of plants, and is easily transported from one place to another in the rootstock of transplanted botanicals. It is found presently in lake Okeechobee, east to the Atlantic coast, southward to Miami and Homestead, as well as on Big Pine Key and at Ft. Myers on the Gulf Coast. It has also been introduced to parts of Hawaii.

II. Infraorder Alethinophidia: all snakes other than blind snakes and thread snakes, of which 15 families, 9 subfamilies, and 316 genera are presently recognized.

A.  Family Boidae (Boas and Pythons; 2 N.A. Genre, 2 N.A. species)

1. Genus Charina (1 N.A. species)

a. Rubber boa (Charina bottae)

2. Genus Lichanura (1 N.A. species)

a. Rosy boa (Lichanura trivirgata)

B. Family Colubridae (Colubrids: 280 W.W. genera, 1,600 species, worldwide)

1. Genus Arizona (Glossy Snakes: 1 N.A. species w/9 subspecies)

a. Glossy snake (Arizona elegans)

(1). Texas glossy snake (Arizona elegans arenicola) 12 Aug 2004, Frisco TX, S.M.

(2). Western Mojave glossy Snake (Arizona elegans candida)

(3). Desert glossy Snake (Arizona elegans eburnata)

(4). Kansas glossy Snake (Arizona elegans elegans)

(5). Chihuahua glossy Snake (Arizona elegans expolita)

(6). Arizona glossy Snake (Arizona elegans noctivaga)

(7). California Glossy Snake (Arizona elegans occidentalis)

(8). Peninsula glossy Snake (Arizona elegans pacata)

(9). Painted Desert glossy Snake (Arizona elegans philipi)

2. Genus Bogertophis (New World Rat Snakes; two N.A. species)

a. Baja California Rat Snake (Bogertophis rosaliae)

b. Trans-Pecos Rat Snake (Bogertophis subocularis)

3. Genus Carphophis (Worm Snakes; three N.A. species/subspecies)

a. Eastern worm snake (Carphophis amoenus amoenus)

b. Midwestern worm snake (Carphophis amoenus helenae)

c. Western worm snake (Carphophis vermis)

4. Genus Cemophora (Scarlet Snakes; 1 N.A. species; 3 subspecies)

a. Scarlet snake (Cemophora coccinea)

(1). Florida scarlet snake (Cemophora coccinea coccinea)

(2). Northern scarlet snake (Cemophora coccinea copei)

(3). Texas scarlet snake (Cemophora coccinea lineri)

5. Genus Chilomeniscus (Sand Snakes; 1 N.A. species; 2 subspecies)

a. Banded sand snake (Chilomeniscus cinctus)

b. Variable/Western sand snake (Chilomeniscus stramineus)

6. Genus Chionactis (Shovel-nosed Snakes; 2 N.A. species; 4 subspecies)

a. Western shovel-nosed snake (Chionactis occipitalis)

(1). Colorado shovel-nosed snake (Chionactis occipitalis annulata)

(2). Tucson shovel-nosed snake (Chionactis occipitalis klauberi)

(3). Mojave shovel-nosed snake (Chionactis occipitalis occipitalis)

b. Sonoran shovel-nosed snake (Chionactis palarostris)

7. Genus Clonophis (Monotypic; 1 N.A. species)

a. Kirtland’s snake (Clonophis kirtlandii)

8. Genus Coluber (Racers; 1 N.A. species)

a. Eastern racer (Coluber constrictor)

(1). Buttermilk racer (Coluber constrictor anthicus) 20 May 2007Conroe TX, Al P.

Serpentes: Buttermilk racer (Coluber constrictor anthicus); lateral head and neck; Sara dLR, Tomball, TX --- 28 Aug 2011

Buttermilk racer

(2). Northern black racer (Coluber constrictor constrictor)

(3). Tan racer (Coluber constrictor ethridgei)

(4). Eastern yellow-bellied racer (Coluber constrictor flaviventris)

(5). Blue racer (Coluber constrictor foxii)

(6). Brown-chin racer (Coluber constrictor helvigularis)

(7). Black-mask racer (Coluber constrictor latrunculus)

(8). Mexican racer (Coluber constrictor oaxaca)

(9). Everglades racer (Coluber constrictor paludicola)

(10). Southern black racer (Coluber constrictor priapus) 23 Mar 2007, Huntsville TX, Bill C.

Southern Black Racer (Coluber constrictor priapus) juvenile; John Rose, D.O., D.Ph., Seymour, TX --- 10 Jul 2011

Southern Black Racer juvenile

9. Genus Coniophanes (Black-striped Snakes; 1 N.A./U.S. species)

a. Black-stiped snake (Coniophanes imperalis)

10. Genus Contia (Sharp-tailed Snakes [monotypic]; 1 N.A. species)

a. Sharp-tailed snake (Contia tenuis)

11. Genus Diadophis (Ring-necked Snakes; 1 N.A. species, 14 subspecies)

a. Ring-necked snake (Diadophis punctatus)

(1). Prairie ring-necked snake (Diadophis punctatus arnyi)

(2). Regal ring-necked snake (Diadophis punctatus regalis)

(3). Mississippi ring-necked snake (Diadophis punctatus stictogenys)

(4). Pacific ring-necked snake (Diadophis punctatus amabilis)

(5). Key ring-necked snake (Diadophis punctatus acricus)

(6). Todos Santos Island ring-necked snake (Diadophis punctatus anthonyi)

Prairie Ring necked snake Curtis R Sweetwater TX 072808 dorsal head

Prairie Ring necked snake

(7). Michoacan ring-necked snake (Diadophis punctatus dugesii)

(8). Northern ring-necked snake (Diadophis punctatus edwardsii)

(9). San Bernardino ring-necked snake (Diadophis punctatus modestus)

(10). Northwestern ring-necked snake (Diadophis punctatus occidentalis)

(11). Coral-belly ring-necked snake (Diadophis punctatus pulchellus)

(12). Southern ring-necked snake (Diadophis punctatus punctatus)

(13). San Diego ring-necked snake (Diadophis punctatus similis)

(14). Monterey ring-necked snake (Diadophis punctatus vandenburghii)

12. Genus Drymarchon (Indigo & Cribo Snakes; 5 N.A. species, [disputed] subspecies)

a. Indigo snake (Drymarchon corais)

(1). Texas Indigo snake (Drymarchon corais erebennus)

13. Genus Drymobius (Neotropical racers; 4 N.A.[1 U.S.] species)

a. Speckled racer (Drymobius margaritiferus margaritiferus)

14. Genus Elaphe (Rat Snakes; 10 N.A. species/subspecies)

Rat Snake (Elaphe spp.) 30 Jun 2009, Lumberton TX, Meredith C.

a. Baird’s rat snake (Elaphe bairdii)

b. Black rat snake (Elaphe obsoleta)

(1). Texas rat snake (Elaphe obsoleta lindheimeri)

Texas Rat Snake (Elaphe obsoleta lindheimeri) Latest Updates

Texas Rat Snake (Elaphe obsoleta lindheimeri) 15 May 2007, Fort Worth TX, Joanne P.

Texas Rat Snake (Elaphe obsoleta lindheimeri) 18 May 2007, Lake Austin TX, Karen S.

Texas Rat Snake (Elaphe obsoleta lindheimeri); T.K., Dripping Springs, TX --- 15 Apr 2012

Texas Rat Snake

Texas Rat Snake (Elaphe obsoleta lindheimeri) 4 May 2007, Austin TX, Robyn C

Texas Rat Snake (Elaphe obsoleta lindheimeri) 4 May 2007, McKinney TX, Jennifer B.

Texas Rat Snake (Elaphe obsoleta lindheimeri) 4 May 2007, Tomball TX, Ms. M.

Texas Rat Snake (Elaphe obsoleta lindheimeri) 30 Apr 2007, Austin TX, Todd H.

Texas Rat Snake (Elaphe obsoleta lindheimeri) 22 Mar 2007, Flower Mound TX, Anne J.

Texas Rat Snake (Elaphe obsoleta lindheimeri) 2006, Lake LBJ TX, Gail K.

Texas Rat Snake (Elaphe obsoleta lindheimeri, juvenile) 8 Oct 2004, Austin TX, Richard D.

Texas Rat Snake (Elaphe obsoleta lindheimeri) 14 Aug 2004, Austin TXm D.Y.

Juvenile Texas Rat Snake (Elaphe obsoleta lindheimeri) Oct 2003, Frisco TX, S.M.

Texas Rat Snake (Elaphe obsoleta lindheimeri) 12 May 2003, Eustace TX

Texas Rat Snake (Elaphe obsoleta lindheimeri) 4 Jun 2002, Round Rock TX

Texas Rat Snake (Elaphe obsoleta lindheimeri) Jul 2001, Round Rock TX

Juvenile Texas Rat Snake (Elaphe obsoleta lindheimeri) Temple TX

(2). Black Rat Snake (Elaphe obsoleta obsoleta) 14 May 2001, Georgeown TX

(3). Yellow rat snake (Elaphe obsoleta quadrivittata)

(4). Everglades rat snake (Elaphe obsoleta rossalleni)

(5). Gray rat snake (Elaphe obsoleta spiloides)

c. Slowinski’s corn snake (Elaphe slowinskii)

d. Western fox snake (Elaphe vulpina)

e. Eastern fox snake (Elaphe gloydi)

15. Genus Farancia (Mud Snakes; 2 N.A. species)

a. Mud snake (Farancia abacura)

(1). Western mud snake (Farancia abacura reinwardti)

(2). Eastern mud snake (Faracnia abacura abacura)

b. Rainbow snake (Faracnia erytrogramma)

16. Genus Ficimia (Hook-nosed Snakes; 7 N.A./1 U.S. species)

a. Mexican hook-nosed snake (Ficimia streckeri)

17. Genus Gyalopion (Hook-nosed Snakes; 7 N.A./1 U.S. species)

a. Western hook-nosed snake (Gyalopion canum)

b. Desert hook-nosed snake (Gyalopion quadrangulare)

18. Genus Heterodon (Hog-nosed Snakes; 3 N.A. species)

a. Western hog-nosed snake (Heterodon nasicus)

b. Eastern hog-nosed snake (Heterodon platirhinos)

Eastern hog-nosed snake (Heterodon platirhinos) Latest Updates

Eastern Hog-nosed Snake (Heterodon platirhinos); Tom Sinclair, Sam Houston National Forest, Texas--061510

Eastern Hog-nosed Snake

Batesian Mimicry of Western Pygmy Rattlesnake by Eastern Hog-nosed Snake; Tom Sinclair, Sam Houston National Forest, Texas–06.15.10

Eastern hog-nosed snake (Heterodon platirhinos) 11-18-2003 W. C, New Braunfels, TX

Eastern Hog-Nosed Snake (Heterodon platirhinos) 03-30-2007 College Station, TX Lorraine E

Eastern Hog-Nosed Snake (Heterodon platirhinos) 03-15-2007 Cypress, TX, R. Holley

Eastern Hog-Nosed Snakes Mating – Southwest Montgomery, Texas 03-21-2007

c. Southern hog-nosed snake (Heterodon simus)

19. Genus Hypsiglena (Night Snakes; 2 N.A./1 U.S. species)

a. Night snake (Hypsiglena torquata)

(1). Texas night snake (Hypsiglena torquata jani)

20. Genus Lampropeltis (King Snakes & Milk Snakes; 29 N.A. species/subspecies)

a. Grey-Banded king snake (Lampropeltis alterna)

b. Prairie king snake (Lampropeltis calligaster calligaster)

(1). Prairie king snake (Lampropeltis calligaster calligaster)

(2). South Florida Mole King snake (Lampropeltis calligaster occipitolineata)

(3). Mole king snake (Lampropeltis calligaster rhombomaculata)

c. Eastern king snake (Lampropeltis getula)

(1). California King snake (Lampropeltis getula californiae)

prairie king snake

prairie king snake

desert king snake

desert king snake

(2). Florida King snake (Lampropeltis getula floridana)

(3). Eastern King snake (Lampropeltis getula getula)

(4). Apalachicola King snake (Lampropeltis getula meansi)

(5). Speckled King snake (Lampropeltis getula holbrooki)

(6). Black King snake (Lampropeltis getula nigrita)

(7). Desert King Snake (Lampropeltis getula splendida)

Desert King Snake (Lampropeltis getula splendida) 24 Apr 2007, Tynan TX, Ken C.

Desert King Snake (Lampropeltis getula splendida) 23 Mar 2007, Fort Worth TX, Dede S.

(8). Isla Santa Catalina King snake (Lampropeltis getula catalinensis)

(9). Florida King snake (Lampropeltis getula floridana)

d. Mexican king snake (Lampropeltis mexicana)

(1). Mexican king snake (Lampropeltis mexicana leonis)

(2). Durango Mountain King snake (Lampropeltis mexicana gren)

(3). Nuevo Leona King snake (Lampropeltis mexicana thayen)

e. Mountain king snake (Lampropeltis pyromelana)

(1). Utah Mountain King snake (Lampropeltis pyromelana infralabialis)

(2). Sonoran Mountain King snake (Lampropeltis pyromelana knoblochi)

(3). Arizona Mountain King snake (Lampropeltis pyromelana pyromelana)

(4). Ruthven’s King snake (Lampropeltis ruthveni)

f. Milk snake (Lampropeltis triangulum)

(1). Louisiana Milk snake (Lampropeltis triangulum amaura)

Louisiana Milk snake (Lampropeltis triangulum amaura)30 Mar 2007, Conroe TX, Gail & Bill

(2). Mexican Milk snake (Lampropeltis triangulum annulata)

(3). Scarlet King snake (Lampropeltis triangulum elapsoides)

g. California mountain king snake (Lampropeltis zonata)

(1). San Pedro King snake (Lampropeltis zonata agalma)

(2). Todos Santos Island King snake (Lampropeltis zonata herrerae)

(3). Sierra Mounain King snake (Lampropeltis zonata multicincta)

(4). Coast Mountain King snake (Lampropeltis zonata multifasciata)

(5). San Diego Mountain King snake (Lampropeltis zonata pulchra)

(6). St. Helena Mountain King snake (Lampropeltis zonata zonata)

21. Genus Leptodeira (Cat-eyed Snakes; 1 N.A. species)

a. Northern cat-eyed snake (Leptodeira septentrionalis septentrionalis)

22. Genus Liochlorophis (Smooth Green Snakes; 1 N.A. species)

a. Western smooth green snake (Liochlorophis vernalis blanchardi)

Note: Some authorities place the smooth green snake in the genus Opheodrys (q.v.).

23. Genus Masticophis (Coachwhips & whip snakes; 4 N.A. species)

a. Sonoran whip snake (Masticophis bilineatus)

b. Coachwhip (Masticophis flagellum)

(1). Eastern coachwhip (Masticophis flagellum flagellum)

(2). Western coachwhip (Masticophis flagellum testaceus)

c. Whip snake (Masticophis schotti)

(1). Schott’s whip snake (Masticophis schotti schotti)

(2). Ruthven’s whip snake (Masticophis schotti ruthveni)

d. Striped whip snake (Masticophis taeniatus)

(1). Central Texas Whip Snake (Masticophis taeniatus girardi)

Central Texas Whip Snake (Masticophis taeniatus girardi)

24. Genus Nerodia (Water snakes; 9 N.A. species)

a. Salt marsh snake (Nerodia clarki)

(1). Gulf salt marsh snake (Nerodia clarki clarki)

b. Mississippi green water snake (Nerodia cyclopean)

c. Plain-bellied water snake (Nerodia erythrogaster)

(1). Yellow-bellied water snake (Nerodia erythrogaster flavigaster)

Yellow-bellied water snake (Nerodia erythrogaster flavigaster) Jun 18 2004, Huntsville TX, D.CB.

(2). Blotched water snake (Nerodia erythrogaster transversa)

Blotched Water Snake (Nerodia erythrogaster transversa) Latest Updates

Juvenile Blotched Water Snake (Nerodia erythrogaster transversa): Mid-body markings; Michael Logozar, Round Rock, Texas --- 13 APR 2012

Juvenile Blotched Water Snake

Blotched Water Snake (Nerodia erythrogaster transversa) 28 April 2003, Austin, TX

Blotched Water Snake (Nerodia erythrogaster transversa) 22 Mar 2007, Temple TX, Molly C.

Blotched Water Snake (Nerodia erythrogaster transversa) 3 Jun 2004, Temple TX, J.S.

d. Banded water snake (Nerodia fasciata)

(1). Broad-banded water snake (Nerodia fasciata confluent)

Broad-banded water snakes (Nerodia fasciata confluens) 30 Mar 2007, Katy TX, Christer R.

Broad-banded water snake (Nerodia fasciata confluens) 29 Mar 2007, The Woodlands TX, Tim T.

(2). Florida water snake (Nerodia fasciata pictiventris)

e. Harter’s water snake (Nerodia harteri)

(1). Brazos water snake (Nerodia harteri harteri)

(2). Concho water snake (Nerodia harteri paucimaculata)

f. Diamondback water snake (Nerodia rhombifer)

(1). Diamondback water snake (Nerodia rhombifer rhombifera)

Diamond-backed water snake (Nerodia rhombifer rhombifer) Latest Updates

Diamond-backed Water Snake (Nerodia rhombifer rhombifer): Dorsal head & anterior body; John Wise, Bullard, TX --- 14 Apr 2012

Diamondback Water Snake

Diamond-backed water snake (Nerodia rhombifer rhombifer) 24 Mar 2007, Montgomery Co. TX, Milli Ann D.

Diamond-backed Water Snake (Nerodia rhombifer rhombifer) 24 March 2007, Austin, TX, Kathy B.

Diamond-backed Water Snake (Nerodia rhombifer rhombifer) Texas- unk location 20-03-2007Diamond-backed Water Snake (Nerodia rhombifer rhombifer) 29 Mar 2007, East TX, John R

Diamond-backed Water Snake (Nerodia rhombifer rhombifer) 26 Aug 2004, Haslet TX, A.L.

(2). Blanchard’s water snake (Nerodia rhombifer blanchardi)

(3). Werler’s water snake (Nerodia rhombifer werleri)

g. Midland water snake (Nerodia sipedon pleuralis)

25. Genus Opheodrys (Rough green snakes; 1 N.A. species)

a. Rough green snake (Opheodrys aestivus aestivus)

(1). Northern rough green snake (Opheodrys aestivus aestivus)

(2). Florida rough green snake (Opheodrys aestivus carinatus)

Note: Some authorities classify the smooth green snake (liochlorophis vernalis; q.v.) as Opheodrys vernalis.

26. Genus Oxybelis (Vine snakes; 4 N.A. species)

a. Mexican vine snake (Oxybelis aeneus)

b. Cope’s vine snake (Oxybelis brevirostris)

c. Green vine snake (Oxybelis fulgidus)

d. Roatan vine snake (Oxybelis wilsoni)

27. Genus Pantherophis (red rat snakes)

a. Red rat snake (Pantherophis guttatus)

(1). Corn snake (Pantherophis guttatus guttatus)

(2). Great Plains rat snake [Emory’s rat snake] (Pantherophis gutattus emoryi)

28. Genus Phyllorhynchus (Leaf-nosed snakes; 2 N.A. species)

a. Saddle leaf-nosed snake (Phyllorhynchus browni)

b. Spotted leaf-nosed snake (Phyllorhynchus decurtatus)

29. Genus Pituophis (Gopher, pine, and bull snakes; 5 N.A. species)

a. Gopher snake (Pituophis catenifer) 11 recognized subspecies

(1). Sonoran gopher snake (Pituophis catenifer affinis)

(2). Bull snake (Pituophis catenifer sayi)

b. Louisiana pine snake (Pituophis ruthveni)

30. Genus Regina (Crayfish snakes; 4 N.A. species)

a. Striped crayfish snake (Regina alleni)

b. Graham’s crayfish snake (Regina grahamii)

c. Glossy crayfish snake (Regina rigida)

(1). Gulf crayfish snake (Regina rigida sinicola)

d. Queen snake (Regina septemvittata)

31. Genus Rhadinaea (New World brown woodland snakes; 45 species)

a. Pine woods snake (Rhadinaea flavilata)

32. Genus Rhinocheilus (Long-nosed snakes; 1 N.A. species; 4 subspecies)

a. Long-nosed snake (Rhinocheilus lecontei)

(1). Mexican long-nosed snake (Rhinocheilus lecontei antonii)

(2). Isla Cerralvo long-nosed snake (Rhinocheilus lecontei etheridgi)

(3). Western long-nosed snake (Rhinocheilus lecontei lecontei)

(4). Texas long-nosed snake (Rhinocheilus lecontei tessellatus)

Texas long-nosed snake (Rhinocheilus lecontei tessellatus), 23 Jul 2007,Baylor Co. TX, John H. R.

Texas long-nosed snake (Rhinocheilus lecontei tessellatus), 25 Jul 2004, Katy TX, L.W.

33. Genus Salvadora (Patchnose snakes; 7 N.A. species)

a. Baird’s patchnose snake (Salvadora bairdi)

b. Big Bend patchnose snake (Salvadora deserticola)

c. Mountain patchnose snake (Salvadora grahamiae grahamiae)

(1). Mountain patchnose snake (Salvadora grahamiae grahamiae)

(2). Texas patchnose snake (Salvadora grahamiae lineata)

d. Western patchnose snake (Salvadora hexalepis)

e. Oaxacan patchnose snake (Salvadora inermedia)

f. Pacific patchnose snake (Salvadora lemniscata)

g. Mexican patchnose snake (Salvadora mexicana)

34. Genus Seminatrix (Swamp snakes; 1 N.A. species; 3 subspecies)

a. Swamp snake (Seminatrix pygaea)

(1). South Florida swamp snake (Seminatrix pygaea cyclas)

(2). Carolina swamp snake (Seminatrix pygaea paludis)

(3). North Florida swamp snake (Seminatrix pygaea pygaea)

35. Genus Senticolis (Mountain rat snakes; 1 N.A. species)

a. Western green rat snake (Senticolis triaspis intermedia)

36. Genus Sonora (Ground snakes; 3 N.A. species)

a. Great Plains ground snake (Sonora semiannulata semiannulata)

Great Plains ground snake (Sonora semiannulata semiannulata)29 May 2007, El Paso TX, Sean M.

b. Taylor’s ground snake (Sonora semiannulata taylori)

37. Genus Stilosoma (Short-tailed snake; monotypic)

a. Short-tailed snake (Stilosoma extenuatum)

38. Genus Storeria (Brown snakes & redbelly snakes; 4 species)

a. Dekay’s brown snake (Storeria dekayi)

(1). Northern brown snake (Storeria dekayi dekayi)

(2). Marsh brown snake (Storeria dekayi limnetes)

Marsh brown snake (Storeria dekayi limnetes) 7 Apr 2007, Hurst TX, Aprile L.

Marsh brown snake (Storeria dekayi limnetes) 12 Mar 2007, Houston TX, K. Kennerly

(3). Texas brown snake (Storeria dekayi texana)

Texas Brown Snake (Storeria dekayi texana) 1 Mar 2007, Sugar Land TX, D. Teller

Texas Brown Snake (Storeria dekayi texana) 2 Sep 2002, Round Rock TX

Newborn Texas Brown Snake (Storeria dekayi texana) 20 Sep 2002, Round Rock TX

(4). Florida brown snake (Storeria dekayi victa)

(5). Midland brown snake (Storeria dekayi wrightorum)

(6). Mexican yellowbelly brown snake (Storeria dekayi hidalgoensis)

b. Redbelly snake (Storeria occipitomaculata)

(1). Florida redbelly snake (Storeria occipitomaculata obscura)

(2). Northern redbelly snake (Storeria occipitomaculata occipitomaculata)

(3). Black Hills redbelly snake (Storeria occipitomaculata pahasapae)

c. Mexican brown snake (Storeria storerioides)

39. Genus Tantilla (Centipede, blackhead, & flathead snakes; 64 species)

a. Mexican blackhead snake (Tantilla atriceps)

b. Southeastern crowned snake (Tantilla coronata)

c. Big Bend blackhead snake (Tantilla cucullata)

d. Flathead snake (Tantilla gracilis)

e. Southwestern blackhead snake (Tantilla hobartsmithi)

f. Plains blackhead snake (Tantilla nigriceps)

g. Rim Rock crowned snake (Tantilla oolitica)

h. Western blackhead snake (Tantilla planiceps)

i. Florida crowned snake (Tantilla relicta)

j. Chihuahuan blackhead snake (Tantilla wilcoxi)

k. Yaqui blackhead snake (Tantilla yaquia)

40. Genus Thamnophis (Garter & ribbon snakes; 31 species)

a. Black-necked garter snake (Thamnophis certopsis)

eastern blacknecked garter snake

Eastern blacknecked garter snake

(1). Western black-necked garter snake (Thamnophis certopsis cyrtopsis)

(2). Eastern black-necked garter snake (Thamnophis certopsis ocellatus)

Eastern Black-Necked Garter Snake (Thamnophis cyrtopsis ocellatus)

Eastern Black-Necked Garter Snake (Thamnophis cyrtopsis ocellatus) 27 Jul 2004, Austin TX, Mark T.

Eastern Black-Necked Garter Snake (Thamnophis cyrtopsis ocellatus) 24 Jul 2004, Austin TX, S.W.

Eastern Black-Necked Garter Snake (Thamnophis cyrtopsis ocellatus) 24 Apr 2004, Austin TX, E.D.

b. Checkered garter snake (Thamnophis marcianus marcianus)

Colubridae: checkered garter snake (Thamnophis marcianus marcianus; Baird & Girard, 1853); diorsal midbody; Steiner Ranch, Austin, TX--10 April 2010

Checkered garter snake

Checkered garter snake (Thamnophis marcianus marcianus) 20 Ma7 2007, Austin TX, Stacey P.

Checkered garter snake (Thamnophis marcianus marcianus) 22 Mar 2007, Austin TX, Richard D.

Checkered garter snake (Thamnophis marcianus marcianus) 17 Mar 2007, Seguin TX, R. Warren

Checkered garter snake (Thamnophis marcianus marcianus) 21 Jun 2004, Austin TX, Matt G.

c. Ribbon snake (Thamnophis proximus)

(1). Western ribbon snake (Thamnophis proximus proximus)

Western ribbon snake (Thamnophis proximus proximus) 1 Apr 2007, Montgomery Co. TX, Anita M.

(2). Arid land ribbon snake (Thamnophis proximus diabolicus)

(3). Gulf coast ribbon snake (Thamnophis proximus orarius)

(4). Red-striped ribbon snake (Thamnophis proximus rubrilineatus)

Red-striped Ribbon Snake (Thamnophis proximus rubrilineatus) 2 Jun 2003, Georgetown TX

d. Plains garter snake (Thamnophis radix)

(1). Western Plains garter snake (Thamnophis radix haydeni)

e. Common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis)

(1). Eastern garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis sirtalis)

(2). Texas garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis annectans)

(3). Red-sided garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis)

41. Genus Trimorphodon (Lyre snakes; 2 species, 7 subspecies)

a. Western lyre snake (Trimorphodon biscutatus)

(1). Western lyre snake (Trimorphodon biscutatus biscutatus)

(2). Sonoran lyre snake (Trimorphodon biscutatus lambda)

(3). Baja California lyre snake (Trimorphodon biscutatus lyrophanes)

(4). Texas lyre snake (Trimorphodon biscutatus vilkinsonii)

42. Genus Tropidoclonion (Lined snakes; monotypic, 4 subspecies)

a. Lined snake (Tropidoclonion lineatum)

(1). Central lined snake (Tropidoclonion lineatum annectens)

(2). Northern lined snake (Tropidoclonion lineatum lineatum)

(3). Merten’s lined snake (Tropidoclonion lineatum mertensi)

(4). Texas lined snake (Tropidoclonion lineatum texanum)

Lined Snake (Tropidoclonion lineatum texanum) May 2002, Temple, TX

43. Genus Virginia (Earth snakes; 3 species)

a. Mountain earth snake (Virginia pulchra)

b. Rough earth snake (Virginia striatula)

Rough earth snake (Virginia striatula) 7 Apr 2007, Hurst TX, Aprile L.

Rough earth snake (Virginia striatula) 6 Mar 2007, Austin TX, K. Andrews

Rough earth snake (Virginia striatula) 22 Feb 2007, Copperas Cove TX, L. Essary

c. Smooth earth snake (Virginia valeriae)

C. Family Elapidae (Elapids; 2 N.A. Genera; 3 N.A. species) ALL SPECIES IN THIS FAMILY ARE VENOMOUS.

North American Coral Snakes (Micruroides euryxanthus, Micrurus tener, and Micrurus fulvius) Latest Updates

Arizona Coral Snake (Micruroides euryxanthus euryxanthus): Jeff Survoss, USFWS

Arizona Coral Snake

Texas Coral Snake (Micrurus fulvius tener); Body outstretched; Jenny C., 06Apr 2012, Nolanville TX

Texas Coral Snake

1. Genus Micruroides (I N.A. species)

a. Arizona coral snake (Micruroides euryxanthus)

2. Genus Micrurus (2 N.A. species)

a. Eastern coral snake (Micrurus tener)

b. Texas coral snake (Micrurus fulvius)

Texas coral snake (Micrurus fulvius) 16 May 2007, Conroe TX, Kristy A.

Texas coral snake (Micrurus fulvius) Aug 2004, Caldwell Co. TX, N.

D. Family Viperidae (Vipers; 1 N.A. Subfamily) ALL SPECIES IN THIS FAMILY ARE VENOMOUS.

a. Subfamily Crotalinae (Pit vipers)

1. Genus Agkistrodon (Moccasins; 3 genera)

a. Cantil (Agkistrodon bilineatus)

(1). Cantil (Agkistrodon bilineatus bilineatus)

(2). Castellana (Agkistrodon bilineatus howardgloydi)

(3). Yucatecan cantil (Agkistrodon bilineatus russeolus)

(4). Taylor’s cantil (Agkistrodon bilineatus taylori)

b. Copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix)

Broad-banded Copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus); Shelly T., Flower Mound, TX--08.03.2010

Broad-banded Copperhead

southern copperhead

Southern copperhead

(1). Southern copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix)

Southern Copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix) 16 May 2007, Conroe TX, Don A.

Southern Copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix) 24 Jul 2004, Huntsville TX, D.B.

(2). Broad-banded copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus)

Broad-Banded Copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus) 2 July 2009, Round Rock TX, Steve B.

(3). Northern copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix mokasen)

(4). Osage copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix phaeogaster)

(5). Trans-pecos copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix pictigaster)

c. Cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus)

Western Cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorous leucostoma); Robert B., Jack Brooks Park, Houston area, Texas--08.08.2010

Western cottonmouth

(1). Florida cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus conanti)

(2). Western cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus leucostoma)

Western Cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus leucostoma) 1 Apr 2007 Montgomery Co. TX, Anita M..

(3). Eastern cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus piscivorus)

Western Cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus leucostoma) 1 Apr 2007 Montgomery Co. TX, Anita M..

2. Genus Crotalus (Rattlesnakes; 29 N.A. species)

a. Eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus)

b. Dusky rattlesnake (Crotalus aquilus)

c. Western diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox)

Western Diamond-backed Rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox); Karen L., Cedar Creek, TX, Lateral head with sheathed fangs--10.22.2010

Western Diamondback Rattlesnake

Western Diamond-Backed Rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) 28 Mar 2007, Round Rock TX, Eliot D.

d. Mexican west coast rattlesnake (Crotalus basiliscus)

e. Catalina Island rattlesnake (Crotalus catalinensis)

f. Sidewinder (Crotalus cerastes)

(1). Mojave desert sidewinder (Crotalus cerastes cerastes)

(2). Sonoran sidewinder (Crotalus cerastes cercobombus)

(3). Colorado desert sidewinder (Crotalus cerastes laterorepens)

g. Baja rattlesnake (Crotalus enyo)

(1). Cerralvo Island rattlesnake (Crotalus enyo cerralvensis)

(2). Lower California rattlesnake (Crotalus enyo enyo)

(3). Rosario rattlesnake (Crotalus enyo furvus)

h. Timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus)

Canebrake Rattlesnake Tim C Elgin TX 102408 midbody

Canebrake Rattlesnake

canebrake rattlesnake

Canebrake rattlesnake

(1). Canebrake rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus atricaudatus)

Canebrake Rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus atricaudatus): Tim C., Blue, TX–10.24.08

i. Mexican small-headed rattlesnake (Crotalus intermedius)

(1). Oaxacan small-headed rattlesnake (Crotalus intermedius gloydi)

(2). Totalcan small-headed rattlesnake (Crotalus intermedius intermedius)

(3). Omilteman small-headed rattlesnake (Crotalus intermedius omiltemanus)

j. Autlan rattlesnake (Crotalus lannomi)

k. Rock Rattlesnake (Crotalus lepidus)

(1). Banded rock rattlesnake (Crotalus lepidus klauberi)

(2). Mottled rock rattlesnake (Crotalus lepidus lepidus)

(3). Durango rock rattlesnake (Crotalus lepidus maculosus)

(4). Tamaulipan rock rattlesnake (Crotalus lepidus morulus)

l. Speckled rattlesnake (Crotalus mitchellii)

(1). Angel de la Guarda Island speckled rattlesnake (Crotalus mitchellii angelensis)

(2). San Lucan speckled rattlesnake (Crotalus mitchellii mitchellii)

(3). El Muerto Island speckled rattlesnake (Crotalus mitchellii muertensis)

(4). Southwestern speckled rattlesnake (Crotalus mitchellii pyrrhus)

(5). Panamint rattlesnake (Crotalus mitchellii stephensi)

m. Black-tailed rattlesnake (Crotalus molossus)

(1). San Esteban Island black-tailed rattlesnake (Crotalus molosses estebanensis)

(2). Northern black-tailed rattlesnake (Crotalus molosses molosses)

(3). Mexican black-tailed rattlesnake (Crotalus molossus nigrescens)

(4). Oaxacan black-tailed rattlesnake (Crotalus molossus oaxacus)

n. Western rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus)

(1). Grand Canyon rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus abyssus)

(2). Coronado Island rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus caliginis)

(3). Arizona black rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus cerberus)

(4). Midget faded rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus concolor)

(5). Southern Pacific rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus helleri)

(6). Great Basin rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus lutosus)

(7). Northern Pacific rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus oreganus)

o. Mexican lancehead rattlesnake (Crotalus polystictus)

p. Twin-spotted rattlesnake (Crotalus pricei)

(1). Eastern twin-spotted rattlesnake (Crotalus pricei miquihuanus)

(2). Western twin-spotted rattlesnake (Crotalus pricei pricei)

q. Tancitaran dusky rattlesnake (Crotalus pusillus)

r. Red diamond rattlesnake (Crotalus ruber)

(1). San Lorenzo Island diamond rattlesnake (Crotalus ruber lorenzoensis)

(2). San Lucan diamond rattlesnake (Crotalus ruber lucansensis)

(3). Red diamond rattlesnake (Crotalus ruber ruber)

s. Mojave rattlesnake (Crotalus scutulatus)

(1). Huamantlan rattlesnake (Crotalus scutulatus salvini)

(2). Mojave rattlesnake (Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus)

t. Dusky rattlesnake (Crotalus triseriatus)

(1). Western dusky rattlesnake (Crotalus triseriatus armstrongi)

(2). Dusky rattlesnake (Crotalus triseratus triseriatus)

u. Prairie rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis)

(1). Hopi rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis nuntius)

(2). Prairie rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis viridis)

v. Ridge-nosed rattlesnake (Crotalus willardi)

(1). Del Nido ridge-nosed rattlesnake (Crotalus willardi amabilis)

(2). Southern ridge-nosed rattlesnake (Crotalus willardi meridionalis)

(3). New Mexican ridge-nosed rattlesnake (Crotalus willardi obscurus)

(4). Western Chihuahuan ridge-nosed rattlesnake (Crotalus willardi silus)

(5). Arizona ridge-nosed rattlesnake (Crotalus willardi willardi)

3. Genus Sistrurus, Ground rattlesnakes

a. Massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus)

(1). Eastern massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus catenatus)

(2). Desert massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus edwardsii)

(3). Western massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus tergeminus)

b. Pygmy rattlesnake (Sistrurus miliarius)

(1). Dusky pygmy rattlesnake (Sistrurus miliarius barbouri)

(2). Carolina pygmy rattlesnake (Sistrurus miliarius miliarius)

(3). Western pygmy rattlesnake (Sistrurus miliarius streckeri)

Western Pygmy Rattlesnake (Sistrurus miliarius streckeri), midbody; Tom Sinclair, Sam Houston National Forest, Texas--060810

Western Pygmy Rattlesnake

Western Pygmy Rattlesnake (Sistrurus miliarius streckeri), head; Matthijs Hollanders, SHNF, Texas--06.16.10

Western Pygmy Rattlesnake

Western Pygmy Rattlesnake (Sistrurus miliarius streckeri)

Batesian Mimicry of Western Pygmy Rattlesnake by Eastern Hog-nosed Snake; Tom Sinclair, Sam Houston National Forest, Texas–06.15.10

c. Mexican pygmy rattlesnake (Sistrurus ravus)

(1). Oaxacan pygmy rattlesnake (Sistrurus ravus brunneus)

(2). Guerreran pygmy rattlesnake (Sistrurus ravus exigus)

(3). Central Plateau pygmy rattlesnake (Sistrurus ravus ravus)


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One comment on “Index to North American Snakes

  1. Jerry Bennett Apr 10,2013 2:35 pm

    not on snakes but spiders, I have all kinds invading my home, lived there 6 months, including scorpions, have killed brown recluse, now I understand soap and water, but with grandkids, I am looking for way to spider proof my home, I have checked under doors that is tight, I notice many in bathroom, some in hall closet where a/c heat unit is , I believe I have pvc pipe coming from foundation for wiring, have attempted to plug up used numerous sprays, glue strips, eg. I killed 5 yesterday, a scorpion today, last fall , several a day, numerous scorpions, possibly in attic? walls,? foundation ? all of above ?thots? previous owner had carpet, did not mention problem , I have installed laminate floors,

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